Learning outcomes of the course unit
Principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases
Aetiology, outline of pathogenesis, clinical samples, laboratory diagnostic procedures, interpretation of the results of microbiological and virological investigations to diagnose the infectious diseases.
The determination of susceptibility/resistance of the pathogenic agents to chemotherapeutics
To know the most relevant laboratory tests
To understand the role and the importance of the laboratory medicine for a correct diagnosis
To evaluate cost/benefit ratio
To correctly apply the fit methodologies to notice the functional finds and of laboratory, critically also interpreting them under the physiopathologix profile, to the goals of the diagnosis and the prognosis. The student has to be able to point out for the clinical cases of different typology, brought to his/her observation, the more appropriate investigations of laboratory, to appraise of it critically the diagnostic meaning and to suggest the more effective close examinations of laboratory.
Course contents summary
Principles and methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases - Demonstration of the pathogenic agent and its constituents in the pathological material - Demonstration of a recent specific immune response - The medical prescription of microbiological and virological investigations - Collection, transport and preservation of the clinical samples for microbiological and virological investigations - Aetiology, outline of pathogenesis, clinical samples, laboratory diagnostic procedures, interpretation of the results of microbiological investigations regarding the diagnosis of:
Infections of the respiratory apparatus - Infections of the intestinal apparatus and related glands - Systemic infections - Infections of the cardiovascular apparatus - Infections of the central nervous system - Infections of the genitourinary apparatur and sexually - transmitted infections - Infections of the skin and cutaneous adnexa - Infections of the muscular-skeletal apparatus - Infections of the eye and the ear-prenatal, connatal and perinatal infections - The nosocomial infections - The determination of susceptibility/resistance of the pathogenic agents to chemotherapeutics - Methods - Interpretation of the results - The dosage of chemotherapeutics in tissues and biological fluids.
To begin to apply the logical tools in the clinical reasoning and to address the choices of the diagnostic tools according to the decisional criterions of efficiency and effectiveness tha keep in mind of the relationships among benefits, risks and costs.
Preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical variability. Condition tha can alter results of the analyses of laboratory; different possibilities of collecting - Correct application of the techniques for the collecting and the harvest of the materials. - The concept of normality in biology and the functions of risk (normal values on statistic base, normal values on biological base, desirable values and functions of risk, usable decisional values to diagnostic or therapeutic end). - General principles of the most diffused techniques in use near the clinical laboratories. Control of quality - To appraise critically a report (intervals of reference, sensibility and specificity of a test, predictive value, critical difference) The values of reference of the analyses of the common routine - Elements of diagnostic molecular - Investigations for the control of the pregnancy - Interpretation of the complete examination of the urines in key of diagnostic use - Interpretation of measures of enzymes and isoenzymes, and of other indicators as diagnostic mean in specific pathologies and of organ - Alterations biochemical-clinics in the carbohydrate metabolism - Alterations biochemical-clinics in the lipid metabolism - Alterations biochemical-clinics in the purine metabolism - Alterations biochemical-clinics in the electrolytes - Alterations biochemical-clinics in the mineral metabolism and the connected pathologies - Interpretation of the parameters of the equilibrium acid-base in ralationship to their pathologies. To orient on the choice and on the meaning of the principal diagnostic tests in the most common endocrine pathologies - Interpretation of the alterations of the plasma proteins as suspect diagnostic of the pathologies to them connect.
Laboratory tests, patient preparation, biological samples - Hematological laboratory test and their interpretation in the diagnosis of hematological diseases - Endocrine and metabolic test and their interpretation - Tumour markers and their interpretation - Diagnostic molecular biology.
M.Bendinelli, A. Calderaro, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano - Parassitologia - Monduzzi Editore
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori,N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano - Microbiologia Medica: Batteriologia, Micologia, Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. Monduzzi Editore
M.Bendinelli, A. Calderaro, C. Chezzi - Parassitologia Medica - Monduzzi Editore
Orale lesson and laboratory
Assessment methods and criteria