Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students have to know:
1. the morphology and structure of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses, the physiology of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites and the replication of viruses
2. the classification of bacteria/fungi/parasites/viruses
3. the natural history of infections by bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses and their mechanisms of pathogenicity
4. the main defense mechanisms of the host against infections by bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses
5. the main mechanisms of action of drugs against bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses and the mechanisms of resistance to drugs6. the laboratory procedures to study the morphology and growth requirements of bacteria/ fungi/ parasites/ viruses, and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial and antiviral drugs.
Course contents summary
The evolutionary aspects of research in microbiology. Classification of the microbial world. Morphology and structure of bacterial cell. Chemical composition of the bacterial cell. Bacterial genetics. The bacterial metabolism. The microbial reproduction. The cultivation of bacteria. Antibacterial drugs: mechanisms of action and resistance, susceptibility testing. The microrganisms and the multicellular organisms. The resident microbiota of the body. Bacteria-host interactions. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence. Invasiveness. Toxigenicity. Antigenic mimetism. Steps in the reduction shid between host and bacteria. Notes on modes of transmission of infectious diseases, sources of infection and epidemics influencing factors .
- Introduction to Medical Mycology. General features of fungi. Structure of the fungal cell and colony. Fungal metabolism. Modalities of fungal reproduction. Fungal dimorphism. Classification of fungi. Mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. Immune response to fungal infections. Host-parasite interactions in fungal infections. Pathogenesis of mycoses. Classification of mycoses. Epidemiology of mycoses. Antifungal drugs. Mycotoxins.
Parasitism, commensalism, mutualism. Infections and infestations. Host-parasite interactions. Prevalence of parasitic infections and infestations. Classification of medically important human parasitic Protozoa, Helmints and Arthropods.
The beginnings of experimental virology. Definition of viruses. Characteristics of viruses. Nature of viruses. Theories on the origin of viruses. Morphology of viruses. Structure of viruses: cubic symmetry, helical symmetry, complex structure, combined cubic and helical symmetry.
Chemical composition of viruses: nucleic acids , proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. Haemagglutination by viruses.
Quantitative determination of viruses: chemical and physical determinations, infectivity assays.
Steps in multiplication of viruses: adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis of viral components, maturation, release. Nucleic acid replication of RNA viruses. Nucleic acid replication of DNA viruses. Expression of viral genomes . Cultivation of viruses: cultivation in cell culture in vitro: cytopathic effect, haemadsorption, immunoenzymatic and immunofluorescence techniques, cultivation in chicken embryos, cultivation in animals.
Viral genetics: induction of mutations by physical and chemical agents, different types of mutants, pleiotropism; covariation. Interactions between virus phenotypes: complementation, phenotypic mixing, transcapsidation. Interactions between virus genotypes: intramolecular recombination, genetic reassortment, polyploidism.
Viral interference: absorption mediated, homologue, heterologue, interferon-mediated.
Virus-host interactions: pathogenesis of viral infections, the response from the host to viral infections, persistent infections, notes on the epidemiology of viral infections, notes on the prophylaxis and therapy with antiviral drugs.
The classification of viruses: classification based on pathogenetic and epidemiological characteristics, classification based on chemical, physical, biological and antigenic characteristics.
Morphology, cultivation, identification, mechanisms of pathogenicity, natural history of infections with reference to the following bacteria:
Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus and other species); Streptococcus (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae); Enterococcus (S. faecalis, S. faecium and other species); Neisseria (N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae); Salmonella and other main Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Serratia, Pro
- M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano -
"MICROBIOLOGIA MEDICA: BATTERIOLOGIA, MICOLOGIA, VIROLOGIA. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio. " Monduzzi Editore
- I. De Carneri. Parassitologia Generale ed Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.