# GENERAL PHYSICS 1

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The aim of the course is to give to the student an organic knowledge of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics (elementary dynamics and rigid bodies, short account of fluids) and the main principles of thermodynamics and electrostatics; the student should become able to solve in an autonomous way simple problems.

## Prerequisites

The knowledge of the elementary mathematics and of the differential and integral calculation is recommended, therefore the courses of "Mathematical Analysis 1" and "Geometry" should be previously attended.

## Course contents summary

MODULUS A

Physical quantities

Dimensions and dimensional analysis; units and systems of units; fundamental and derived physical quantities.

Vectors

Scalar quantities and vector quantities; vector operations.

Elementary kinematics

Coordinate systems; relative position, velocity and acceleration; mono- and bi-dimensional motions with constant or non constant acceleration; radial and tangential accelerations; motion of projectiles, circular motions, etc.; reference frames.

Elementary dynamics

Newton’s laws of motion; contact forces and field forces; the free body diagram; dynamics of the linear and the circular motion; inertial and accelerated reference frames; fictitious forces.

Work and energy

Kinetic energy; work performed by a force; conservative forces and potential energy; conservation of mechanical energy; the mechanical power.

Momentum

Definition of momentum and impulse; conservation of linear momentum.

Discrete and continue mass distribution

The centre of mass. Velocity and acceleration of the centre of mass.

Rigid bodies

Kinematics of rotational motion (angular coordinates, angular velocity and angular acceleration); relations between linear and angular kinematic quantities.

Rigid body dynamics

Torque; centre of gravity; angular momentum; moment of inertia; the parallel axis theorem; kinetic energy and work for the rotational motion; equations of motion; Koenig theorems; conservation of the angular momentum; the pure rolling motion.

Gravitational law

Gravitational force and Keplero laws.

Collisions

Impulsive forces and collisions between two bodies (monodimensional central collisions, collisions with free or bound rigid bodies).

Statics

Conditions for the static equilibrium of a rigid body.

Harmonic oscillators

Kinematics, dynamics and energetic aspects in the motion of the harmonic oscillator and examples.

MODULUS B

Solids and fluids

Deformation of solids: short accounts; fundamental quantities and laws of fluids: Stevino’s and Archimedes’ laws, continuity equation and Bernoulli’s law.

Introduction to thermodynamics

Thermodynamic variables and basic concepts. Temperature. Zeroth principle of thermodynamics; thermodynamic equilibrium; temperature, thermometers and temperature scales (Kelvin and Celsius); the constant volume gas thermometer; the thermal expansion.

Ideal gases

State equation of ideal gases; kinetic theory of gases; equipartition law; thermodynamic transformations for the ideal gas; reversible and irreversible transformations; p-V diagram; Van der Vaals equation for the real gas.

Heat

Heat exchange: thermal capacity and specific heat; latent heat; heat transfer mechanisms.

Thermodynamic work

Heat and work in the thermodynamic transformations for the ideal gas.

First principle of thermodynamics

Internal energy in the thermodynamic transformations; Meyer’s relationship between specific heats.

Second principle of thermodynamics

Heat engines and efficiency; the Carnot’s engine; the absolute scale of temperatures; entropy; short accounts of entropy, disorder and probability.

Introduction to electrostatics

Conductors and insulators; the electric charge; the Coulomb’s law.

Force and force field

The field of a vector physical quantity; the force lines; electric fields due to discrete and continue charge distributions; motion of a charge in an electric field; flux of the electric field and Gauss’ theorem; electric field of high-symmetry charge dist

## Recommended readings

Basical texts

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, K.S. Krane, “Fisica”, vol. 1 and 2 (Ambrosiana).

W.E. Gettys, F.J. Keller, M.J. Skove, “Fisica classica e moderna”, vol. 1 and 2 (McGraw-Hill).

P.A. Tipler, G. Mosca, "Corso di Fisica", vol. 1-Meccanica Onde Termodinamica e vol. 2-Elettricità Magnetismo Ottica (Zanichelli).

S. Rosati, “Fisica Generale”, vol. 1 and 2 ( Ambrosiana)

Advanced texts

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, “Fisica Generale, Meccanica e Termodinamica” (Ambrosiana)

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, “Fisica” vol. 1 and 2 or “Elementi di Fisica” in several volumes (ediSES)

R.G.M. Caciuffo, S. Melone, “Fisica Generale - Meccanica e termodinamica” (Masson S.p.A.)

## Teaching methods

Practical exercises are proposed, consisting in the solution of simple problems whose text was previously assigned.

The examination consists of a written and an oral test. The written examination can also be taken in form of a few written evaluations in itinere.