Learning outcomes of the course unit
The purpose of the course is to gain knowledge of the etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of diseases in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Notions of semeiotic and medical terminology are important for the future profession
Course contents summary
Environmental Pathology. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease.
Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging. Oxidative stress. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Effects of tumours on the host. Nutritional and hormonal effects. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TC lymphocytes, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Immunodeficiency. Hypersensitivity. Pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
General features of acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Types of acute inflammation. Systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia Chronic inflammation: types, morphologic features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Hemostasis. Trombosis, embolism, angina and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension and hypotension.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma.
Biochemical and metabolic pathology
Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. VII edizione. Elsevier
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale. III edizione.Piccin.
Abbas A.K. : Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. MASSON Elsevier II edizione.