Learning outcomes of the course unit
Pathological Anatomy represents the core of the diagnostic-therapeutic path. The correct anatomo-pathological interpretation enables the development of increasingly varied protocols departing from “standard protocols”, depending on the morphological and bio-molecular characteristics of a disease in a specific patient. The course is therefore divided into three phases, so that students become progressively acquainted with the basic concepts of pathological anatomy, the impact of systemic diseases on specific issues of the study course and, finally, with odontostomatological diseases having possible effects on the body and on the person .
In addition, the course aims at providing some general epicritical study models to be used daily and to help students understand the importance of cooperation between the various professional profiles
As specified by the Degree Course Board.
Course contents summary
According to the guide lines of the Board of Professors of Pathological Anatomy of the Degree Course in Dentistry and Dental Prostheses and in compliance with the guide lines of the European Community as expressed in the Brussels Protocol: ''Competences Required for the Practice of Dentistry in European Union (June 1996) the contents of the course will be structured as follows:
1) The Pathological Anatomy Laboratory. Elements of histopathological tecniques. The histopathological examination The cytological examination. The main aims of the diagnostic examination. Epicrisis. The intraoperative histopathological examination. The cooperation between the clinical surgeon and the anatomic pathologist in the construction of diagnosis and prognosis.
2) Anatomo-pathological pictures of tissue and organ damage in rejections reactions, in autoimmune diseases, in acute and chronic inflammatory processes and in the main granulomatous processes
3) Cell regeneration and growth: Injury healing
4) Hemodynamic alterations : a) Edema, Hyperaemia, Congestion, Hemorrhage; b) Embolism, Thrombosis, Disseminated Intravasal Coagulation (CID); c) Infarctions: morphological pictures and evolution; d) Shock: types, pathogenetic mechanisms, evolution
5) Tumours :a) The biology of tumour growth, angiogenesis, progression, local diffusion, metastasis; b) Diagnostic cytohistopathology : histotype, grading, stadiation, prognostic factors. c) Classification of benign and malignant tumours
II) Systematic pathology
1) Cardiocirculatory system: Arteriosclerosis, Arteritis, Aneurysms; Varices, Phlebothrombosis, Thrombophlebitis; b) Cardiac diseases : Angina pectoris, Chronic ischemic cardiopathy, Infarction of the myocardium, Sudden death, c) Valvular cardiopathy: rheumatic fever and rheumatic endocarditis, bacterial endocarditis. d) Myocarditis, specific cardiomyopathies, idiopathic cardiomyopathies. e) Pericarditis.
2) Hemolymphopoietic system: Plasma cell dyscrasias (multiple myeloma, solitary myeloma, gammopathies); b) Lymphoadenitis c) Lymphomas.
3) Respiratory apparatus: Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, Emphysema, Pulmonary fibrosis b) Pneumonia, Bronchopneumonia, Pleuritis and Pleural Effusions; c) Thromboembolism and Pulmonary Infarction; d) Bronchial Asthma; e) Pleuropulmonary and lanryngeal neoplasias
4) Urogenital system: Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, Hydronephrosis, Nephrolithiasis; b) Benign and malignant nephrosclerosis; c) Renal, pyeloureteral and bladder neoplasms d) Prostate hypertrophy, Carcinoma
5) Gastroenteric system, Liver and Biliary tract, Pancreas: Esophagus: Hiatal hernia, Varices, Esophagitis, Carcinoma; Stomach : Gastritis, Peptic ulcer, Neoplasias; Intestine : Infarction, Ulcerous colitis, Crohn’s disease, Diverticular disease, Celiac disease and Malabsorption Syndromes, Polyps and Adenomas, Colorectal carcinoma; Liver : Viral Hepatitis, Alcoholic hepatopathy, Cirrhosis, Hepatocarcinoma, Cholangiocarcinoma; Biliary Tract : Icterus, Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, Litiasis. Pancreas ; Acute and chronic pancreatitis, Diabetes Mellitus.
6) Endocrine System: Hypophysis : Hyperpituitarism, Hypopituitarism; Thyroid: Thyroiditis, Goiter,Graves disease, Carcinomas; Parathyroids: Primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism; Adrenal Gland : ! Cushing’s syndrome, Hyperaldosteronismus, Addision’s disease, Neoplasias
7) Locomotor system: Bones: Paget’s disease, Fibrous dysplasia, Recklinghausen's disease; Osteomyelitis; Joints and Tendons : arthrosynovitis, Rheumatoid arthitis
8) Nervous system: Meningitis, Cerebral abscesses, Encephalitis; b) Infarction, Apoplectic hemorrhage, Aneuryisms; c) Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis
9) Skin: Nevi and melanomas; Precancerosis, Basaloma and Spinocellular carcinoma
III) Odontostomatological Systematic Pathology<
Kumar V., Abbas A.K., Fausto N.
ROBBINS e COTTRAN LE BASI PATOLOGICHE DELLE MALATTIE 7th Ed. Elsevier, 2006
J.V. Soames, J.C. Southam: Patologia Orale, Terza Edizione, EMSI editore
Nevillle Woolf: Anatomia Patologica,EdiSES editore
There will be classroom, interactive lectures and students may be requested to participate actively when topics of particular specialized interest are dealt with.
The knowledge of the course contents will be assessed along with the ability to critically examine the various macroscopic aspects of lesions, to correctly interpret microscopic findings and to correctly analyse an anatomo-pathological report referring to the various viable therapeutic choices