SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To introduce the concept of sustainability and evaluate the level of sustainability of the current industrial processes.
Course contents summary
1) Introduction: sustainable chemistry (definition); international chemicals policy and sustainability; the twelve principles of the green chemistry. The key role of catalysis.
2) Metrics for environmental analysis and eco-efficiency: yield and selectivity;atom economy; E-factor and Q-factor; carbon efficiency. Waste sources; waste reduction and reuse.
Examples of calculations of atom economy and other eco-metrics in the industrial (traditional = brown vs. innovative= green ) production of :
• caprolactam (Sumitomo-Enichem process; DSM-Shell and BASF technologies from butadiene);
• adipic acid (Solutia process; Noyori reaction from cyclohexene, biocatalysis);
• maleic anhydride (starting from benzene or butadiene);
• propylene oxide (direct oxidation of propene; biocatalysis);
• alcohols from alkanes (stoichiometric oxidation by metal salt or catalytic technology using oxygen);
• hydroquinone (Upjohn process, ENI approach by means of TS1 catalyst);
• a pharmaceutical molecule: Ibuprofen.
Atom economy in common organic reactions of industrial interest: transposition, substitutions, Diels Alder reactions, Wittig reactions, isomerisation.
3) Novel reaction media and technologies; principles and examples of:
• use of water in biphasic catalysis (e.g. SHOP process, oxosynthesis..);
• use of supercritical fluids (e.g. Metolachlor production);
• use of perfluorous solvents in biphasic catalysis (e.g. hydroformilation, oxidation..);
• use of ionic liquids (e.g. Dimersol and Difasol processes)
• use of microwaves in industrial processes
• membrane-based reactors for biphasic reactions
4) Process intensification and meso-technologies.
5) Biocatalysis; principles and examples on surfactants production, Cefalosphorine C synthesis; PLA monomer preparation. Use of renewable feedstocks and biomass. White industrial biotechnology.
G. Centi, S. Perathoner, F. Trifirò, F. Cavani. Sustainable industrial chemistry. Wiley 2009; ISBN-10: 3-527-31552-7
R.A. Sheldon, I. Arends, U. Hanefeld. Green chemistry and catalysis. Wiley 2007. ISBN: 978-3-527-30715-9