Learning outcomes of the course unit
To know the main mechanisms od the sensory and motor functions of the central nervous system and of sensorimotor transformation processings.To know the mechanisms at the basis of the muscle contraction and of the muscle performance
To know the basic principles of general pharmacology and the processes that regulate the concentrations of drugs in thedifferent compartments of body after the dosing and the events consequent on interaction of the drug with its primary site of action. To know the pharmacology of drugs modifing the neuromuscular function and of drugs used for the therapy of inflammatory diseases of joints.
To make the student able to understand the therapeutic and toxicological aspects related to the use of the above reported drugs.
TO GIVE STUDENTS A BASIC PREPARATION ON MAIN COGNITIVE PROCESSES UNDERLYING HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH PATIENTS
Course contents summary
Methods for studying the functions of the central nervous system
Organization of the spinal cord; spinal reflexes
Organization of the brainstem; vestibular system; posture
Sensory systems: somatosensory system, visual system
Associative cortex, higher order cognitive functions
Cerebellum, basal ganglia, motor cortex
Introduction to pharmacology; definition and scope of pharmacology; definition of drug. Principles of pharmacodynamics: molecular targets and mechanism of drug action. Drugs acting at receptor level: agonists and antagonists; partial agonists; relationship between agonist concentration and response. Pharmacokinetics: how drugs reach their target: routes of administration; physicochemical factors in drugs transport across membranes; absorption, transfer of drugs across the blood brain barrier and across the placenta. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins, distribution of drugs into body tissues. Drugs biotransformation. Factors affecting drugs biotransformation: genetic polymorphisms induction and inhibition of biotransformation enzymes. Excretion of drugs: renal, biliary, fecal and pulmonary excretion; excretion by other routes. Pharmacokinetics parameters: bioavailability; volume of distribution; half life, clearance. Factors that affect therapeutic outcome: drug-drug interactions, physiological and pathological factors. Tolerance and resistance. Drugs toxicity: adverse drug reactions.
Drugs affecting the neuromuscular function: agents acting on neuromuscular junction: competitive and depolarizing agents, botulinum toxin; centrally acting muscle relaxants: agents affecting GABA-ergic system. Drugs used for the therapy of myasthenia gravis: anticholinesterase agents, steroids and immunosopressive agents. Antiparkinsonian agents. Drugs used in the treatment of pain: opioid and non-opioid analgesics, local anaesthetics. Drugs acting as antiinflammatory agents employed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: non selective and selective COX inhibitors. Steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids); antirheumatoid drugs (DMARDs: disease modifying antirheumatoid drugs); drugs used in gout (colchicine, allopurinol, uricosuric agents). Generalities of drugs used for treatment of spinal lesions. New drugs used for treatment of osteoarthritis: condroprotective agents.
THRESHOLDS AND PSYCHOPHYSICS - PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION - PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND MOVEMENT- CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING - MEMORY PROCESSES - AMNESIA - MOTIVATION - PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MOTIVATIONS - THEORIES ON MOTIVATION - EMOTIONS - EXPRESSION AND RECOGNITION OF EMOTIONS - THEORIES ON EMOTIONS -COMMUNICATION PROCESSES - NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION -THERAPEUTICALLY EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION - RELATIONSHIP WITH PATIENTS - LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION - HUMAN LANGUAGE - HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION AND LANGUAGE
Concept of normality/pathology, health/illness, personality/personal competence, biopsychosocial vulnerability
Clinical application of the theoretical behavioural model
Clinical application of cognitivism
Clinical application of Freud's psychoanalytical model
The humanistic-existential perspective
Empathy and aid-relationship
Clinical characteristics of the main psychopathological forms and of abuse and addiction dysfunctional behaviours
Neuroscienze, a cura di Dale Purves, Casa Editrice Zanichelli, II edizione
M.M. Dale, D.G. Haylett: Elementi di Farmacologia Compendio per l'esame. Ed. EMSI. 1a Ed. Italiana 2006.
H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M. Ritter Farmacologia. 3a Edizione Italiana della 5a Edizione Inglese, 2005.
M. Furlanut: Farmacologia Generale e Clinica per le lauree triennali. Ed. Piccin Padova 1a Ed. Italiana
L. ANOLLI, P. LEGRENZI, Psicologia generale, il Mulino, Bologna, 2001
Cattelani R.: Elementi di psicologia clinica. Manuale per operatori sanitari e sociali. Carocci Faber, Roma, 2003