Learning outcomes of the course unit
1) basic principles in mineralogy and crystallography
2) properties and systematics of the most common rock forming minerals
Course contents summary
Minerals and mineralogy. Translational symmetry, di- and tridimensional lattice; crystal systems.
Morphological crystallography: Steno and Hauy laws. Miller indexing of faces and edges.The 32 point groups and possible crystal forms . The sterographic projection: theory and projection of symmetry elements. The determination of point symmetry in ideal crystals.
Structural crystallography: bravais lattices and space groups. X-ray diffraction: Xray generation, continuous and discontinous radiation; the Laue experiment and the Bragg law. Powder diffraction: interpretation of powder patterns for a mineral determination.
Mineralogical optical: visibile radiation in solid media. The Snell equation and the limit angle. Light behaviour in isotropic and anisotropia media. The optical indicatrix and its orientation in the different crystal systems.
Crystalchemistry. The main elements in the earth crust. Cation radium and coordination polyhedra. The SiO44- tetrahedron. Pauling rules. The polymorphism: energetico and examples in minerals. Isomorphous substitutions. Phase diagrams of geological interest, with one, two, three components. Physical properties of minerale and relation with the structure.
Systhematic mineralogy: main topics on the studied mineral phases. Silice minerale. Feldspars: crystal chemistry, order-disorder and phase transformations. The feldspatoids. The inosilicates: pyroxenes and amphiboles. The phyllosilicates. Micas and shale minerals. The nesosilicates: olivine and garnets. Other silicates: epidote, tourmaline, AlSi2O5 phases, zircon. The non silicates:
CO32-, SO42-, PO43- groups (carbonates, sulphates and phosphates): differences with slicates and main minerale. Oxydes: cunbic and hexagonal close packing. The spinels. Sulfide minerale.
The constitution and mineralogy of the mantle.
Klein C. (2004) Mineralogia, Zanichelli, Bologna
Wenk H.R., Bulakh A. (2004) Minerals , theri constitution and origin, Cambridge University press, Cambridge
Gottardi G., I Minerali, Boringhieri, Torino.
Putnis A., Introduction to mineral sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.