MICROBIOLOGY AND GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell injury and death, tissue response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, repair), genetic diseases, tumors. Knowledge of fundamentals of immune response and its alterations, with a peculiar emphasis on transfusion medicine and on subjects of particular relevance for ostetricians. Knowledge about the general characteristics of the aetiological agents of the principal infectious diseases (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) with particular interest in the infectious diseases of the obstetrical-gynaecological apparatus.Attainment of terminological competence.
Bases of Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, and Physiology are required.
Course contents summary
General Pathology: 1. Cell Death. Oncosis and apoptosis. 2. Inflammation: Events of acute inflammation; Exudate; Types of exudate; Phagocytosis; Chronic inflammation and granulomas; Abscesses and ulcers; Chemical mediators of inflammation; Systemic effects of inflammation; Tissue repair. 3. Hemostasis: Phases and event of the hemostatic response; Hemorrhagic disorders; Thrombosis and embolism; Infarction. 4. Genetic disorders: Mutations; Single gene diseases; Examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; Multifactorial disorders (malformations, diabetes mellitus); Cytogenetic disorders. 5. Tumors: Classification and nomenclature; Benign and malignant tumors; Tumor etiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; Invasivity and metastasis; Pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases.
Immunology and Immunohematology. 1. The blood: cells and composition. 2. Innate immunity. 3. Adaptive immunity: Antigens (Ag). Antibodies (Ab): structure and function. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The processing and presentation of exogenous and endogenous antigens. 4. Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. 5. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection. 6. Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. 7. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications and their treatment.
Microbiology. 1. Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Morphological and structural aspects of the prokaryotic cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, flagella, pili and phymbria, capsule and spore). Outline about the metabolism and the reproduction of bacteria. Pathogenic action of bacteria. Interaction bacteria-host. The resident bacterial population in the human organism. Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins). Principles for the laboratory diagnosis of the main bacterial infections: direct methods (demonstration of bacteria and/or its constituents in the biological material); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Outline about the main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria: outline about the antibiogram. The main bacteria responsible for human infectious diseases. Staphylococci (S. aureus), Streptococci (pneumococcus, group B streptococci), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Outline about Mycobacteria. Outline about anaerobic bacteria. Outline about Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas and S. aureus. Outline about the bacterial infections of obstetrical-gynaecological interest and involving the maternal-foetal district by: group B streptococci; Treponema pallidum. Outline about the infections by TORCH complex. 2. Mycology: General characteristics of fungi. The fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Outline about the infections by Candida albicans of the uro-genital district. 3. Parasitology: definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Presentation of some parasitic protozoa of medical interest: outline about the life cycles of: blood and tissues parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii, uro-genital parasitic protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis. 4. Virology. Principal biological, morphological and structural characteristics of the viruses; definition of virus, viral sizes and shapes, chemical composition, nucleic acid types. The classification of the viruses (outline). The phases of the viral infection. Cultivation of the viruses: outline about the methods used.
Outline about the main methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the vir
General Pathology: 1. Spector e Axford, Introduzione alla Patologia Generale, CEA, Milano, or 2. Woolf, Patologia Generale: Meccanismi della malattia, Idelson - Gnocchi, Napoli.
Immunology and Immunoematology: 1. Abul K. Abbas & Andrew H. Lichtman "Le basi dell'immunologia"seconda edizione. Masson Editore, 2. Vera Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" terza edizione. Piccin Editore, 3. F. Licastro & M. Chiappelli "Quick Review: Immunologia" EdiSES Editore.
Microbiology: 1. Bendinelli, Chezzi, Fumarola, Pitzurra: Microbiologia Medica, Monduzzi Editore, 2. La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Società Editrice Esculapio.
Supporting tutorials will be used during the oral lessons.