PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
On completing the Pharmacology and Pharmacotoxicology course, students should have acquired:
basic concepts regarding the principles governing the interactions between drugs and the body, both from a pharmacokinetic (absorption, metabolism, distribution and elimination) and pharmacodynamic (mechanism of action) standpoint;
basic concepts regarding general principles of toxicology, adverse drug reactions and how to evaluate them, potential interference with hematochemical dosages, bearing in mind the structure, kinetics and mechanism of action, as well as the relationship between pharmacological and toxicological effects;
knowledge of basic aspects connected with the therapeutic use of certain drugs of more specific interest that are most frequently used and monitored.
The student must have a solid preparation in physiology, basic biochemistry and in the organisation and functioning of the main organ systems (cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, etc.).
Specifically, the following background is fundamental:
Principles of physics that govern the diffusion of solutes in compartments separated by semi-impermeable membranes. Regional differences of hematic flow in the body and primary pathological causes of alteration.
Knowledge of the physical laws governing the interaction between molecules. Biochemical principles governing substrate enzyme interaction. Cellular basis of intercellular communication.
Fundamentals of statistics.
Course contents summary
The course will cover:
Introduction to pharmacology, basic principles.
Pharmacokinetics: chemical-physical factors involved in the passage of drugs through membranes.
Methods of administering drugs and pharmaceutical forms.
Drug distribution and binding bond.
Drug metabolism. Interaction between drugs.
Pharmacodynamics and drug receptors. Fundamentals of Pharmacodynamics.
Signal transduction mechanisms and drug action.
Relation between drug concentration and response.
Relation between drug dosage and clinical response; factors causing variability in drug response.
Toxicology: fundamentals, dosage-response relationship, classification of undesirable effects.
Therapeutic monitoring of drugs. Interpretation of plasmatic concentration measurements. Methods of drug analysis. Anomalous results in chemical-clinical analysis: influence of biological variability and drug treatment.
Monitoring and toxicology: anti-asthmatic drugs, cardioactive drugs, antibiotics, antiepileptic drugs, chemotherapeutics and immnosuppressants, analgesic drugs, psychotropic drugs.
Monitoring and toxicology: drug abuse. Toxicological analysis.
Monitoring and toxicology: poisoning.
Drug surveillance .
Rang H.P., Dale M.M., Ritter J.M., Moore P.K.: Farmacologia. 2a edizione italiana, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2005
Dale M.M., Haylett D.G.: Elementi di farmacologia. Compendio per l'esame. EMSI, Roma 2006
Lullmann H., Mohr K.: Farmacologia per immagini. Atlante tascabile. 2a edizione italiana, Centro Scientifico Editore 2003
oral lesson and laboratory