LABORATORY MEDICINE APPLIED TO MOTOR SCIENCE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To give knowledge of the principles and methods of laboratory medicine applied to motor and sporting activities regarding: Clinical Microbiology and Clinical Biochemistry.
Biochemistry, Basic sciences, Anatomy, Physiology
Course contents summary
Mentions about the general characteristics of the bacterial cell
Mentions about the morphology and structure of the bacterial cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, bacterial chromosome, capsule and spore).
Interactions bacteria-host: ways of penetration and elimination of bacteria; bacterial resident population of the main corporeal districts (oral cavity, respiratory ways, urinary ways, genital apparatus, gastro-enteric tract, cutis). Mentions about pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria: adhesivity, invasivity and principal virulence factors of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, eso- and endotoxins). Routes of transmission of bacterial infections.
Mentions about the general characteristics of fungi, the fungal cell and colony. Outline about yeasts and filamentous fungi.
Outline about the general characteristics of the parasites of medical interest: protozoa, worms, arthropods.
Definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites.
Outline about the life cycles of: blood and tissues parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii, malaria plasmodia, leishmania, free-living amebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria); gastroenteric apparatus parasitic protozoa: Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica; uro-genital parasitic protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis. Outline about the life cycles of worms: cestoda – Taenia solium, T. saginata, D. latum, Echinococcus; nematoda – Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spp., Enterobius vermicularis. Outline about the life cycles of arthropods: ticks, fly larvae, louses; outline about the main infectious agents transmitted by ticks.
Outline on the general characteristics of the viruses. Outline on the classification of the viruses. Outline on the phases of the viral infection. Ways of transmission of the viruses; ways of penetration and elimination of the viruses. Outline about the active and passive antiviral immunoprophylaxis.
Outline about the infections by the parenteral route-transmitted viruses [hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C viruses (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)], viruses responsible for dermatological infections [human papilloma virus (HPV), Herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1; HSV-2), varicella-Zoster virus (VZV), viruses responsible for respiratory apparatus infections (influenza virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus).
Outline about the main control and prevention systems of the bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in the hospital setting: the disinfection, the disinfestation and the sterilization.
Outline about the principal biological samples and methods for the collection for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial, viral infections and parasitic infestations and infections.
Outline about principles and methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections.
M. Bendinelli, C. Chezzi, D. Fumarola, M. Pitzurra "Microbiologia Medica" Monduzzi Editore
L. Spandrio: Biochimica Clinica. Ed. Sorbona, Milano.