NEUROLOGY AND CLINICAL GNATOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Training objectives of the course
Neurology – Providing students with knowledge for a correct interpretation of neurological signs and symptoms, especially involving cranial nerves, and with an understanding of the major groups of neurological disorders. For every single disorder of each group, specific information will be provided on epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological, prognostic and therapeutic aspects.
Gnatology – Providing students with a sufficiently accurate cultural and technical background that will enable them to deliver a satisfactory operating performance in first-level care and to advance to higher-level training (proficiency courses, post-graduate specialized courses, Master’s programmes, Ph.D.’s).
Course learning results
Neurology – Students will learn how to correctly interpret neurological signs and symptoms as either anatomically and functionally normal or pathological. They will also learn notions that will enable them to define syndromes related to pathological modifications of specific structures of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems (e.g., pyramidal syndrome, extrapyramidal syndrome, etc.). Finally, the course will enable students to get to know the major groups of neurological disorders (e.g., cerebrovascular diseases, infectious CNS diseases, etc.).
Gnatology – End results will be achieved when students have developed an adequate understanding of the subjects and a basic knowledge of how to:
- diagnose and treat masticatory system disorders characterized by alterations of movement and/or pain at the maxillary bones and surrounding organs;
- perform a functional clinical examination of the stomatognatic system;
- improve oral function, control pain in the stomatognatic system, and refer patients for specialized care, either dental or medical, when needed (ENT specialists, rhumatologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, as well as physical therapists and psychologists);
- stabilize dental occlusion and control the masticatory load, both by mechanical occlusion, behavioural management or drug treatment;
- diagnose and manage oral parafunctions;
- recognize the major sleep disorders of dental interest.
Enrolling students must have passed the following tests: biology, chemistry, medical physics, standard human anatomy and anatomy of the stomatognatic system, histology, biological chemistry, pharmacology, human physiology and physiology of the stomatognatic system, dental materials, microbiology, general and odontostomatological anaesthesia, preventive and social hygiene and dental care with epidemiology, general pathology, basics of pathological anatomy and histology, general and odontostomatological radiology.
Course contents summary
Neurology – Semiology of motor functions. Semiology of sensory functions. Semiology of cranial nerves. Sleep and wake cycles. Cognitive functions. Epilepsy. Headache and facial pain. Demyelination disorders. Extrapyramidal disorders. Cerebrovascular disorders. Dementias.
Gnatology – Painful diseases of the face and mouth. Pathologic alterations of mandibular, lingual and facial movement. Oral parafunctions. Occlusal trauma. Sleep disorders of dental interest.
Neurology – 1) Manfredi M. "Neurologia", UTET. 2) Jean Cambier, Maurice Masson, Henri Dehen "Neurologia", Masson
Gnatology – 1) G. Preti, Riabilitazione protesica, Vol. I. UTET, 2003; 2) S. Palla. Mioartropatie del sistema masticatorio e dolori orofacciali, RC Libri, 2002.
Up-front classes and clinical group exercises
Type of exit examination
Written test (gnatology) – Oral test (neurology). The two tests cannot be passed separately.
Gian Camillo Manzoni; Guido M. Macaluso; Giovanni Mauro