Learning outcomes of the course unit
The students have to acquire knowledge of the main aspects of etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, particularly focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue and cell damage and adaptation; the students have to know the cellular and molecular mechanisms which regulate the inflammatory and innate responses and tissue renewal and repair; they have to learn etiology, pathogenesis and physiopathology of the neoplastic disease.
Physiology I - Ethology, Physiology II – Endocrinology, Microbiology and Immunology - Epidemiology
Course contents summary
GENERAL PATHOLOGY (4 CFU)
LECTURERS: Prof. Paolo Borghetti (4 CFU)
Dott.ssa Benedetta Passeri (practicals)
Omeostasis, health and disease. Basic concepts of etiology and pathogenesis of the diseases
Etiology (causes of cell and tissue pathology):
infectious agents (the main mechanisms of injury by virus e bacteria);
chemical agents (the main mechanisms of chemical injury;
physical agents (radiation injury, thermal injuries, mechanical forces)
ischemic and hypoxic injury;
free radicals and oxidative stress;
basics on genetic defects.
Adaptations and cell and tissue pathology (pathogenetic mechanisms and morphology):
Tissue (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia) and cell (heat shock proteins, anti-oxidants, response to DNA damage) adaptation;
reversibile and irreversibile cell injury;
cellular (cloudy swelling, hydropic and vacuolar degeneration, steatosis, intracellular protein accumulation, lysosomal storage disorders) and extracellular degenerations (amyloidosis, ialinosis, fibrinoid necrosis, sclerosis, pigmentations, pathologic calcifications) (histopathology lab).
necrosis: biochemical and morphologic aspects, types of necrosis;
apoptosis: causes (physiologic and pathologic apoptosis), morphologic and biochemical features and mechanisms.
Acute and chronic inflammation:
general features: etiology, classification and evolution;
vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation;
chemical mediators of inflammation;
outcomes of acute inflammation;
primary chronic inflammation: cellular events and mediators;
granulomatous inflammation (causes and pathogenetic mechanisms);
types of acute and chronic inflammation (histopathology lab);
systemic effects of inflammation (Acute Phase Reactions).
Tissue renewal and repair:
repair by healing: cellular events and mechanisms of scar formation;
cutaneous wound healing;
factors that influence wound healing.
definition, general features and nomenclature;
molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis genes;
biology of the neoplastic cell: transformation and progression, heterogeneity, invasion and metastasis;
differential aspects between benign and malignant neoplasms and classification;
etiology and epidemiology: chemical, radiation and microbial carcinogenesis;
immune response against neoplastic cells;
diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant neoplasms.
1) V. Kumar, A. Abbas, N. Fausto: “Robbins e Cotran: Pathologic basis of disease malattie” (2005), Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.
2) G.M. Pontieri, M.A. Russo, L. Frati . Patologia Generale vol. I e II (2005) Piccin, Padova; Pontieri, Russo, Frati Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia. Piccin, Padova.
3) M.U. Dianzani- I. Dianzani- U. Dianzani Istituzioni di patologia generale IV ed. (2004) UTET, Torino
4) Marcato P.S. Anatomia e istologia patologica generale veterinaria. (2000) Eusculapio, Bologna
Lectures (5 CFU) and practicals ( 2CFU) (lab practicals and histopathology lab)
Students can choose between oral (three questions on course topics) or written (multiple choise quiz) exam.