CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY (ATT)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To be able to discuss the mechanisms of delivery and expression of the genetic information at molecular level. To be able to describe the characteristics, the function and the metabolic role of the major molecular constituents of the cell (proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and co-enzymes, vitamins), and the mechanisms of production of the metabolic energy. To show knowledge and understanding of the major metabolic pathways, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, the general principles of metabolic energy homeostasis and cell plasticity. To be able to resolve problems concerning the metabolic use of major food constituent in tissues. To be able to integrate carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in a healthy individual from a global and holistic point of view. To be able to resolve problems concerning the endocrine regulation of the metabolic functions of the organism, the metabolic coordination and the biochemical correlations between organs and tissues under normal conditions and following hormone stimulation. To show knowledge of bone tissue.
It is mandatory to pass the exam of Histology before being allowed to take the exam of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Course contents summary
WITHIN THE INTEGRATED COURSE OF BIOCHEMISTRY, EACH PROFESSOR TAKE CARE OF HIS SPECIFIC PART OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM, WHICH CORRESPONDS TO A FRACTION OF THE LEARNING CREDITS:
Proteins: composition and structure. Proteins of the connective tissue, of the plasma and proteins conjugated of biomedical interest. Hemoglobin and transport of the oxygen.
Enzymes and enzymatic kinetics. Coenzymes used in the metabolic reactions. Vitamins: biochemical action.
Molecular bases of the hereditary information. Composition and structure of the nucleic acids. Replication of the Dna. Telomerase. The reparation of the Dna and his/her correlations with human pathologies, with the cellular aging and with the cancer. RNA: structure, function, transcript, maturation. Genetic code. Protein synthesis, regulation of the gene expression and post-synthetic role of the proteins. The trasduction of the signal. Apoptosis. The differentiation. Clonation.
Bioenergetics and biological oxidations. Cycle of Krebs. Oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis: the glycolytic pathway and regulation. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Pentose phosphate pathway. Oxidation of fatty acids and aminoacids; metabolism of ketone bodies.
Metabolism of the cholesterol: transport of the in partnership lipids to plasmatic lipoproteins. Metabolism of the lipids.
Formation of the ammonia, urea, sour urico and bile pigments.
Biosynthesis of the aminoacids, of the nucleotidis and of the heme.
Biochemistry of the endocrine system: protein hormones - non protein hormones. Role of the hormones in the metabolism.
Bony tissue: structure, mineralization, reabsorption, markers of formation and reabsorption. Metabolism of the calcium and the phosphate. Effect of factors of growth and hormones. Immune system and bone. Biochemistry of the dental tissues.
Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH: Biochimica per le discipline biomediche, seconda edizione, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2006.
Bhagavan NV: Medical Biochemistry, fourth edition, Harcourt/Academic Press, Burlington, 2002.
Caldarera CM: Biochimica Sistematica Umana, seconda edizione, CLUEB, Bologna, 2003.
Devlin TM: Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlations, fifth edition, Wiley-Liss, New York, 2002.
Garrett RH, Grisham CM: Principi di Biochimica, con messa a fuoco su quella umana, Piccin, Padova, 2004.
Mathews CK, van Holde KE, Ahern KG: Biochimica, terza edizione, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2004.
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW; Harper Biochimica, 25a edizione, McGraw-Hill Libri Italia srl, Milano, 2000.
Nelson DL, Cox MM: I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger, terza edizione, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2002.
Siliprandi N, Tettamanti G: Biochimica Medica: strutturale, metabolica e funzionale, Piccin. Padova, 2005.
Voet D, Voet JG: Biochemistry, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2004.
Teaching activity: frontal lessons, interactive activity for small groups, seminars, learning by solving problems
Kind of exam: ral
Prof. Amos Casti (Coordinator)
Prof. Saverio Bettuzzi
Prof. Lorella Franzoni