Learning outcomes of the course unit
The purpose is to give the basic formation propaedeutic to other important
disciplines of this degree in Motorial Sciences which have a direct foundation in the physical
phenomenology or should make frequent implicit use of Physics concepts. Among these:
Chemistry, Biology, Physiology, Bio-chemistry, Theory and methodology of movement , etc. This
module should also give conceptual rudiments about some important technologies of habitual use in
Medicine, as: centrifuge, endoscope, microscope, ultrasonic echography and transducers, laser
beams, x-rays and NMR apparatus, radiation detectors, etc.
Course contents summary
Physical quantities. Dimensions and units of measurement. Scale laws. Basic mathematics: trigonometric functions; vector analysis: scalars and vectors; vector components; operations with vectors.
2. Fundamentals of Mechanics and Biomechanics.
One-dimensional kinematics: linear and angular velocity and acceleration. Free body fall. Two-dimensional kinematics: projectile motion, circular motion. Relative motion. Force and the Newton’s laws. Mass and weight. Free-body diagram. Contact forces: normal, friction, tension. Work and kinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces and potential energy. Mechanical energy and its conservation. Center of mass, linear momentum and its conservation. Collisions: impulse. Torque and moment of force. Angular momentum and its conservation. Static equilibrium conditions and center of weight. Motion of rigid bodies: translation and rotation, moment of inertia. Motion equation for the rotation of a rigid body. Rotational kinetic energy. Angular momentum of a rigid body: applications to the human motion. Statics of the human body: levers, bonds. Examples: equilibrium of joints. Deformation of materials. Elasticity: Hooke’s law. Bending and torsion. Elasticity of bones and blood vessels. Fracture of human bones. Short account on muscles and muscular contraction.
3. Fluids Mechanics.
Pressure. Hydrostatics: Pascal’s law, Stevin’s law and Archimedean principle. The barometer. Blood pressure and its measure. Surface tension. Laplace’s formula and capillary phenomena. Bernoulli theorem and its applications. Real fluids: viscosity. Poiseuille formula and hydraulic resistance. Stoke’s formula. Laminar and turbulent flow. Non-newtonian fluids. Short account on the circulatory system of the human body.
4. Thermology, Gas and Thermodynamics.
Thermal expansion; Temperature and heat. Heat propagation. Ideal gas equation. First and second laws of thermodynamics. Temperature regulation of the human body. Heat engine and efficiency. Carnot cycle. Entropy.
5. Short account on Wave and Electric Phenomena and on Geometrical Optics.
Oscillations, harmonic motion. Simple pendulum and physical pendulum. Elastic waves and their propagation. The sound and its characteristics. Sound intensity. The human ear. The ultrasonic waves: ecography. Electric charges and forces. Coulomb’s law. Electric field and potential. Capacitance and capacitors. Strength and density of current. Ohm’s law and electrical resistance. Electromotive force. Joule’s effect. Electric conduction in liquid solutions. Action potential: electric transmission of the nerve pulse; electrocardiography. The magnetic field: generation, effects; magnetic induction and Faraday’s law. Reflection and refraction of light. Mirrors. Total internal reflection. Optical fibres. Spherical diopters. Thin lenses and image construction. Centred optical systems; the human eye. Common vision defects and their corrections. Electromagnetic waves and their spectrum. The X-rays: interactions of X-rays with matter, applications in diagnostics. The laser: applications in Medicine.
F. Borsa – G.L.Introzzi - D. Scannicchio, Elementi di Fisica, edizioni Unicopli, Milano (1997).
E. Ragozzino, Elementi di Fisica per studenti di scienze biomediche, EdiSES, Napoli (1998).
Other useful textbooks:
J. D. Cutnell, K. W. Johnson, Fisica, Zanichelli, Bologna (1994).
D.M. Burns e S.C.G. MacDonald, Fisica per studenti di biologia e medicina, Zanichelli, Bologna (1998).
J.S. Walker, Fondamenti di Fisica, Zanichelli, Bologna (2005).