Learning outcomes of the course unit
Ability to appreciate the effect of nutrients/foods/diets on human physiology and metabolism in health. Ability to evaluate the role of foods/diets in meeting nutrient needs. Ability to appreciate the effect of food supplements on nutritional quality of dietary regimens aimed to improve performance and to sustain physical activity.
To know the nature and the meaning of the alimentary integrators and their use. To know the normative national and European related to the use of the integrators. To deepen the metabolic role of the integrators, the effects of their supplementation and the possible damages from an excessive introduction.
To understand the action of androgens and the health risk of administration of synthetic androgens.
To know the general principles of food and xenobiotics toxicology.
To be acknowledged to take the examination of "Feeding, Integration, Supplementation and study of the xenobiotics in the diet of the sportsman" the students owe to have taken the examinations of: 1) Chemistry and Propaedeutic Biochemistry and Biochemistry, and of 2) Biochemistry of the Motor and Sporting Activities and Elements of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Course contents summary
WITHIN THE INTEGRATED COURSE OF BIOCHEMISTRY, EACH PROFESSOR TAKE CARE OF HIS SPECIFIC PART OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM, WHICH CORRESPONDS TO A FRACTION OF THE LEARNING CREDITS:
PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM. Elements of Human physiology: structure and functions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas; digestion and absorption of macronutrients; absorption of micronutrients.
FOODS AND NUTRIENTS. Nutritional quality of foods and physical activity: RDAs and guidelines for healthy eating; protein quality; the Glycemic Index; 6) metabolic role of food supplements.
Objective of the integration and supplementazione: I bring of fuels, ''scavengers'' of the free radicals, plastic function. Classification. Substitutive meals. Integrating alimentary, supplements and ergogenic substances (classification, heating, iperoxia).
INTEGRATING: vitamins, vitamin-similar factors (CoQ, coline, taurine, p-amine-benzoic acid, inositol, isoflavons, phytoestrogens, betaine, orizanol, glucosamine, adenosine, amino acids). Integrating of proteins and energetic; integrating to improve the sporting performance; integrating biological-vitaminis; glandular extracts of organ.
CREATINE: structure, meaning and functions; distribution and reserves. Metabolic actions, synthesis and catabolism. Mechanism of action: energetic metabolism, protein synthesis and stabilization of membrane. Dosing: absorption and distribution, clearance, effect on the physical performance. Collateral effects. Commercial products.
CARNITINE: structure, meaning and functions; distribution and reserves. Metabolism of the carnitine in the exercise. Content and supplementation of carnitine. Metabolic effects in the exercise.
AMINO ACIDS: Branched Chain Amino Acds (BCAA): structure, function, metabolism and regulation. Effects on the metabolism; BCAA and pool of the glutamate; BCAA and carnitine. BCAA in the physical exercise. BCAA in the brain and hypothesis of the ''central work.''
METABOLISM OF THE AMINO ACIDIS IN THE PHYSICAL EXERCISE. Arginine: functions and metabolism. Polyamine: structure, function, metabolism and metabolic meaning; the polyamines in the diet. Agmatine: structure and function. Glutamine: structure, function and metabolism; functions and supplementation. Ornithine -alfa - ketoglutarate: Carnosine: structure, functions and metabolic role.
COENZIMA Q: structure, role, metabolic functions and effect of the supplementazione in the physical exercise.
THE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION. Nutritional role and requirements; damages from an excessive introduction of proteins. Metabolism of the amino acids and proteins in the physical exercise in the muscle and in the other tissues.
Androgens: mechanism of action, physical performance and health risk following administration.
XENOBIOTICS: definition, chemical characteristcs and toxicity; xenobiotics and foods.
PALMIERI G., PINCOLINI V., CASTI A. Doping 2004. Instant Medical Books, Medical Network Liaison Srl Scientific Publishing & Communication, Bologna 2004.
CABRAS P. & MARTINELLI A. Chimica degli Alimenti. Piccin, Padova, 2004
F. FIDANZA: Nutrizione Umana - IDELSEN (Napoli)
M. SHILS, J. OLSON, M. SHIKE: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, VIII ed, LEA & FEBIGER (Philadelphia)
A. MARIANI COSTANTINI: Fondamenti di Nutrizione Umana – Il Pensiero Scientifico (Roma)
K. Frayn: Metabolic Regulation. Portland Press, (London)
CASARETT & DOULL'S. Tossicologia. ed. AMSI
Teaching activity: frontal lessons, interactive activity for small groups, seminars, learning by solving problems
Kind of exam: oral test
Prof. Amos Casti (Coordinator)
Prof. Furio Brighenti
Prof. Antonio Ubaldi