Learning outcomes of the course unit
To know the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids and the role of the hormones. To deepen the role of the tissue during physical activity.
To be acknowledged to take the examination of " Biochemistry of the Motor and Sporting Activities and Elements of Endocrinology and Metabolism " the students owe to have taken the examinations of: Chemistry and Propaedeutic Biochemistry and Biochemistry.
Course contents summary
- The metabolic interrelations. Tissue correlations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. Metabolism of the tissues in an organism after feeding, to fast, in the stress.
- Biochemistry of the tissue and the organs: the liver, the heart, the adipose tissue, the blood, the nervous tissue, the muscular tissue.
- Messages between cells and tissue: the hormones. Role of the hormones in the physical exercise.
- The free radicals: production and biological effects. Mechanism of the free radicals in the correlated muscular damage to the physical exercise. Answer of the enzymes antioxidants in relationship to the physical training. Antioxidants. Possible involvement in the overtraining.
- The Skeletal Muscle: structure and function. The proteins of the thin filament: actin, tropomyosin, troponin, nebulin. The proteins of the thick filament: myosin. The proteins of the line Z: alfa- actinin, desmin. Elastic elements: titin. System of the regulatory proteins. Mechanism of the muscular contraction. Energetic budget of the muscular contraction. Ownership and metabolism of the muscular fibers. Distribution of the various types of fibers.
- Muscular energetic sources. Sources of energy for muscle fibers. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
- Effects of the physical exercise on translation of the signal in the muscle. Differential activation of the different pathways in answer to the different types of exercise.
- Regulation of the gene expression operated by the contractile activity. Influence of the intensity and the duration of the training. Proteins of the stress.
- Effects of the physical exercise on the systems of transport of the glucose and influence of the training. Formation and utilization of the lactate in the muscle.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids during the physical exercise.
- The influence of the pH and the ions phosphate in the muscular work.
- The metabolism of the integrators in the physical exercise and in the sporting performance. Integrating dietary and cardiac metabolism.
C.M. Caldarera, BIOCHIMICA SISTEMATICA UMANA, 2003, Clueb
R. Maughan, M. Gleeson and P.L. Greenhaff BIOCHEMISTRY OF EXERCISE & TRAINING, 2003 Oxford University Press
Teaching activity: frontal lessons, interactive activity for small groups, seminars, learning by solving problems
Kind of exam: oral test
Prof. Amos Casti (Coordinator)
Prof. Saverio Bettuzzi
Prof. Paolo Chiodera