HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is designed to give the students the methods for studying the morphological and functional organization of the human body at the different levels of organization: the cell, the tissues, the organs, the gross anatomy of the human body.
Course contents summary
The biomolecoles and the nonelementary sopramolecolaris: (only relatively to the elements propedeutici to the discipline illustrated during the programmed didactic activity).
The protoplasm: Structural aspects, energetic aspects, functional aspects.
The metaplasma: Structural aspects and functional aspects.
The cell: The cell as chemical environment, the cell as physical environment, the animal cell. The cycle technological cellulareFondamenti for the study of the living systems: Analytical methods and methods istochimici of the biochemical investigation, techniques of microscopy in the morphological investigation. The microscopes, utility and technical limits of the various microscopes. The prepared histological firm, preparation of the prepared histological firm. Principles of read of a prepared histological.
The organs and the apparatuses of the cell: Stub citoplasmatica: fundamental medium and citoscheletro. Cellular outskirts: common structural aspects, specific structural aspects, functional aspects. The nucleus. Subunità ribosomali, ribosomi, polisomi and network endoplasmatico. The complexes of the Golgi, vesicles idrolasiche, endosomes and lisosomi. The mitochondria. Centrosoma, all-cast mitotic.
The somatic cells: Morphological and functional aspects proper of the various types of diversified somatic cells: cells secernenti, absorptive cells, contractible cells, excitable cells, cells of coating, cells of the immunity.
The tissues: epithelial tissues of coating. Glandular epithelial tissues. The mucous ones; organization and digestive general lay-out of the mucous ones of the apparatuses, respiratory. The skin. Organization and general lay-out of the principal glandular organs esocrini. Organization and general lay-out of the principal organs glandular endocrines:. Said connective tissues properly: weary connective tissue, plotted connective dense, fat. Specialized connective tissues: plotted cartilagineo, plotted bony; blood, emopoiesi. Unstriated muscular tissue. Skeletal striated muscular tissue. Cardiac striated muscular tissue. Generality on the nervous tissue.
General organization of the human body. Terminology. Anatomical planes.
Locomotor system: classification of the bones, joints and muscles.
Overview of the skull, spine, thorax, pelvis, superior and inferior limbs.
Cardiovascular system: overview of the circulatory system, gross anatomy of the heart, microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the myocardium, of the arteries, veins and capillaries.
Hemo-lymphopoietic system: anatomy and histo-functional correlations of the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymphonodes.
Digestive system: general organization. Microscopic anatomy of the stomach, mesenterial gut, colon, liver and pancreas.
Ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry of the gastric mucosa, intestinal villus, liver lobule. Histo-functional correlations.
Respiratory system: general organization of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Gross anatomy of the lung. Ultrastructure of the lung alveolus. Histo-functional correlations.
Urinary system: gross anatomy of the kidney, ureter and bladder. Ultrastructure of the nephron. Histo-functional correlations.
Endocrine system: overview. Microscopic anatomy and immunocytochemistry of the hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal glands and endocrine pancreas. Histo-functional correlations.
Nervous System: general organization of the brain, spinal cord and of the peripheral nervous plexuses. Immunocytochemistry of the neuron.