Learning outcomes of the course unit
To be able to discuss the mechanisms of delivery andexpression of the genetic information at molecular level. To be able to describe the characteristics,the function and the metabolic role of the major molecular constituents of thecell (proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and co-enzymes, vitamins), and themechanisms of production of the metabolic energy. To show knowledge andunderstanding of the major metabolic pathways, the molecular mechanisms ofregulation, the general principles of metabolic energy homeostasis and cellplasticity. To be able to resolve problems concerning the metabolic use ofmajor food constituent in tissues. To be able to integrate carbohydrate, lipidand protein metabolism in a healthy individual from a global and holistic pointof view. To be able to resolve problems concerning the endocrine regulation ofthe metabolic functions of the organism, the metabolic coordination and thebiochemical correlations between organs and tissues under normal conditions andfollowing hormone stimulation.
Course contents summary
Proteins: structure and function. Hemoglobin andmyoglobin. Enzymes: classification, kinetics and general mechanisms ofregulation. Coenzymes: structure and function. Vitamins: fat-soluble andwater-soluble.
Molecular bases of the hereditary information.Composition and structure of nucleic acids. DNA synthesis. Telomerases. DNArepair mechanisms and correlations with human pathologies, cell aging andcancer. RNA: structure, function,transcription, maturation. Definition and properties of Genetic Code. Proteinsynthesis, regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification ofproteins. Signal transduction pathways. Apoptosis. Cell differentiation.Cloning. Bioenergetics and oxidative metabolism. The tricarboxylic acid cycle.Electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis: the glycolyticpathway and regulation. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogenolysis and glycogenesis.Pentose phosphate pathway. Oxidation of fatty acids and aminoacids; metabolismof ketone bodies.
Glycogen metabolism: synthesis, breakdown andregulation. Metabolism of cholesterol and plasma lipoproteins. Lipolysis andlipogenesis. Metabolism of ammonia. Transport of nitrogen to liver and kidney.Synthesis and degradation of amino acids. Iron and heme metabolism. Purine andpyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. Endocrine metabolism: amines, peptidehormones, steroid hormones. Mechanism of hormone action. Hormonal control ofmetabolism.
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Bhagavan NV: Medical Biochemistry, fourth edition,Harcourt/Academic Press, Burlington, 2002.
Caldarera CM: Biochimica Sistematica Umana, seconda edizione, CLUEB, Bologna,2003.
Devlin TM: Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlations, fifth edition,Wiley-Liss, New York, 2002.
Garrett RH,Grisham CM: Principi di Biochimica, con messa a fuoco su quella umana, Piccin,Padova, 2004.
Mathews CK, van Holde KE, Ahern KG: Biochimica, terza edizione, Casa EditriceAmbrosiana, Milano, 2004.
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW; Harper Biochimica, 25a edizione,McGraw-Hill Libri Italia srl, Milano, 2000.
Nelson DL, Cox MM: I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger, terza edizione,Zanichelli, Bologna, 2002.
Siliprandi N, Tettamanti G: Biochimica Medica: strutturale, metabolica efunzionale, Piccin. Padova, 2005.
Voet D, Voet JG: Biochemistry, 3rd edition, John Wiley& Sons, USA, 2004.
Oral lessons. Oral exam.