CHEMISTRY AND P.B. AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
On the basis of the electronic structure of the atom, to rationalize the properties of pure substance, either the inorganic/organic compounds and the biological macromolecules.
To be able to discuss the mechanisms of delivery and expression of the genetic information at molecular level. To be able to describe the characteristics, the function and the metabolic role of the major molecular constituents of the cell (proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and co-enzymes, vitamins), and the mechanisms of production of the metabolic energy. To show knowledge and understanding of the major metabolic pathways, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, the general principles of metabolic energy homeostasis and cell plasticity. To be able to resolve problems concerning the metabolic use of major food constituent in tissues. To be able to integrate carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in a healthy individual from a global and holistic point of view. To be able to resolve problems concerning the endocrine regulation of the metabolic functions of the organism, the metabolic coordination and the biochemical correlations between organs and tissues under normal conditions and following hormone stimulation.
Course contents summary
Properties of matter, change of physical state, pure substance and mixture, physical and chemical transformations, elements and compounds. Atom components; atomic number, mass number, isotopes, ions. Atomic and molecular mass; mole. Atomic structure; electronic configuration of elements. Periodic Table and elements periodic properties.
Chemical bonding: ionic, covalent and metallic bonds. Intermolecular forces.
Inorganic compounds: hydracid compounds, oxides and peroxides, anhydrides, hydroxides, oxyacids, salts. Formation and balancing of chemical reactions, nomenclature of compounds. Oxydation number, redox reactions and balancing.
Water as a solvent. Properties of solutions. Expressing solute concentration in percent fractions w/w, w/v, molarity. Concentrations calculations. Significance of osmotic pressure.
Types of energy. Thermodynamics: types of systems, exo- and endothermic reactions, the first low of Thermodynamics, energy conservation. Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy.
Chemical kinetics, rates of chemical reactions: molecular collisions theory and activation energy. Factors affecting the chemical reaction rate: kind of reagents, effect of concentrations, temperature, presence of catalyst.
Chemical equilibrium. The law of mass action and equilibrium constant. Factors influencing chemical equilibrium; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Acidic and basic compounds, acid-base equilibria. Ionic dissociation of water, definition of pH. Strength of acids and bases; calculations of pH values in solutions of strong/weak acids and bases. The effect of a buffer solution.
The carbon hybrid orbitals: double and triple covalent bonds. Hydrocarbons: aliphatic and aromatic compounds, nomenclature, properties and reactions.
Few concepts of structural and conformational isomery. Functional groups: classification and features. Nomenclature, physical properties, main reactions of alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines.
Principal carbohydrates: monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides, polysaccharides. Lipids: fatty acids, glycerides. Amminoacids and proteins, the peptide bond. Notions of protein structure. Composition and structure of nucleic acids.
Molecular bases of the hereditary information. Composition and structure of nucleic acids. DNA synthesis. Telomerases. DNA repair mechanisms and correlations with human pathologies, cell aging and cancer. RNA: structure, function, transcription, maturation. Definition and properties of Genetic Code. Protein synthesis, regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification of proteins. Signal transduction pathways. Apoptosis. Cell differentiation. Cloning.
Proteins: structure and function. Hemoglobin and myoglobin. Enzymes: classification, kinetics and general mechanisms of regulation. Coenzymes: structure and function. Vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. acid cycle. Electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis: the glycolytic pathway and regulation. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Pentose phosphate pathway. Oxidation of fatty acids and aminoacids; metabolismof ketone bodies. Glycogen metabolism: synthesis, breakdown and regulation. Metabolism of cholesterol and plasma lipoproteins. Lipolysis andlipogenesis. Metabolism of ammonia. Transport of nitrogen to liver and kidney. Synthesis and degradation of amino acids. Iron and heme metabolism. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. Endocrine metabolism: amines, peptide hormones, steroid hormones. Mechanism of hormone action. Hormonal control of metabolism.
G. Scutari, PRINCIPI DI CHIMICA GENERALE ed ORGANICA, EdiSES s.r.l., Napoli
Valitutti, Tifi, Gentile LA CHIMICA IN MODULI , Zanichelli
A.L. Lehninger, D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, PRINCIPI DI BIOCHIMICA, vol.1-3,, 1995, Zanichelli
C.M. Caldarera, BIOCHIMICA SISTEMATICA UMANA, 2003, Clueb
T.M. Devlin, Textbook of BIOCHEMISTRY with clinical correlations, 1997, Wiley-Liss
R.K. Murray, D.K. Granner, P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell, HARPER BIOCHIMICA, 2000, McGraw-Hill
J.C. Kaplan, M. Delpech BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE E MEDICINA, 1995, G. Gnocchi Editore
Teaching activity: frontal lessons, interactive activity for small groups, seminars, learning by solving problems
Kind of exam: oral test
Prof. Amos Casti (Coordinator)
Prof. Saverio Bettuzzi
Prof. Elena Ferrari