ELEMENTS OF CLINICAL NURSING
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Have a knowledge of basic human needs and be able to recognise objective and subjective data relating to the patient within the nursing process.
Acquire knowledge on the organisation of teamwork and the integrated medical record. Adopting the main measure for the prevention of hospital infections.
Carry out first aid manoeuvres and activation of the survival chain
Course contents summary
Role and profile of the nurse (Presentation of Nurse’s professional profile Ministerial Decree D.M 739/94)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Nursing assistance according to the conceptual model of V. Henderson with regard to Needs and that of N. Roper with regard to Activities of Living.
The Nursing process. Phases of the Nursing process (assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation) )
Nursing information tools:
From the Nursing Record to the Consolidated Record (multiprofessional)
The graphics, main written notes: PA- PO- FR- parameters -Diuresis –Temperature - Therapeutic prescription.
Definition of vital parameters : PA PO (normal values and their main alterations)
Practice in measuring P.A. PO. parameters.
Main Precautions for Measuring HIs: hand washing (types of washing)
Localisation of the HI.
Urinary tract infections: sources of infection, the most frequent causes, urinary drainage, precautions to be adopted for patients with indwelling bladder catheters and in order to avoid Urinary Tract Infections.
Infections of the lower respiratory tract: causes of onset. Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia prevention measures. (correct use of probes for Bronchoaspiration and Ab Ingestis pneumonia)
Bacteremia: Intravascular infections ( from C.V.Cs., C.V.P. catheters), sources of infection
Other localisations: staphylococcus skin infections (Burns department)
Other Hospital Risk Areas:
High risk for patients and staff
Classification of medical devices in:
Critical, semi-critical and non-critical
Personal protection equipment or barrier clothing: masks, protective glasses and visors, gloves (guidelines for correct use), overgowns, overshoes
Precautions to be adopted : standard precautions (S) +
Additional precautions for airborne diseases
Additional precautions for pulmonary TB
Precautions for contact transmitted diseases
Definitions of : Antisepsis, Antiseptic, Asepsis, Bactericide, Bacteriostatic. Contamination, Detergent, Disinfectant, Disinfection, High-Level-Disinfection, Sterility, Aseptic Techniques
Principles for the correct use of disinfectants (Warnings for use)
Main disinfectants used in the health environment: Glutaraldehyde, Alcohol, Chlorhexidine, Chlorine and its derivatives, Compounds made from Quaternary ammonium , Iodophores, Hydrogent Peroxide
Urinary and Faecal (norm, colour and any alterations to be reported)
The Bladder catheter:
Precautions to be adopted for patients with indwelling catheters during positioning or moving
External urine collectors (Pen Flo, condom)
Gastrointestinal tract: precautions to be adopted for patients with
Nasogastric tubes (e.g. Post-operative, for Enteral Nutrition),
Stomies (care and hygiene)
Brief Observation. The Casualty Department. Handling a patient with a Cardiac Arrest, correct activation of the survival chain,
practice of BLS (Basic Life Support) according to the I.R.C. guidelines ( A-B-C- of cardiopulmonary resuscitation))
* Bolander, V.R. Sorensen - Luckmann's Il nursing di base. /FONT>
* Brunner, L.S.; Suddarth, D.S. Il manuale dell'infermiere. Piccin
* Cavicchioli, A.;Canova, M.; Casson, P.; Pomes, A.; Tronca, A.; Zanella, G. Elementi di base dell'Assistenza Infermieristica. Ambrosiana
* George, J.B. Le Teorie del Nursing. UTET
* Juchli, L. L'assistenza generica e specifica al malato in ospedale. Rosini
* Roper, N.; Logan W.W.; Tierney, A.J. Elementi di nursing. Il Pensiero Scientifico
* Sorrentino, S.A. Assistenza infermieristica di base: principi e procedure. McGraw-Hill
* Italian Resuscitation Council, Manuale BLS B
* Lecture notes provided by the professor
Theoretical and practical lectures with simulation exercises in the laboratory.