Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of the anatomy and functional morphology organization of the human body at different levels: cell, cellular organization of tissues, macroscopic anatomy of the body’s systems.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the mechanisms at the basis of cellular and tissue homeostasis, on transport and communication mechanisms and on resting metabolic rate.
Acquisition of the knowledge on the functions of the different organs and apparata, their dynamis integration and the general mechanisms of corntrol of their functions in rest conditions and during physical activity.
To know the main functional parameters in healthy individuals
The module has the aim to give students the basic knowledge of eukaryotic cells and tissues.
Course contents summary
Muscolo-skeletal System: general characteristics and classification of bones, joints and muscles. Cardiovascular System: morphology and structure of the heart. Structure of arteries, veins and capillaries. Topography of the main arteries and veins. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs (Thymus, Spleen, lymph nodes). Digestive system: structure and morphology of the tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, large intestine. Related Glands: liver, pancreas. The peritoneum. Respiratory System: morphology and structure of the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. Urinary System: macro-microscopic anatomy of the kidney, cytology and molecular anatomy of the nephron. Reproductive System: Female reproductive system: macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the ovary, uterine tube, uterus and vagina; morphological and functional aspects of the uterine and ovarian cycles. Male reproductive system: morphology and structure of the testis, epididymis, prostate and ductal system. Genitalia. Endocrine System: morphology, architecture and structure of the endocrine glands (adeno and neuro-hypophysis, epiphyses, thyroid, parathyroid, cromaffine system, widespread neuro-endocrine system, adrenalgland, paragangli, endocrine pancreas). Neuroanatomy: organization of the central nervous system and its components (spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon). Pathways of voluntary and automatic motility. The peripheral nervous system: macroscopic anatomy with functional correlations and innervation territories.
The cell membrane
Cell membrane structure; membrane proteins; transport mechanisms across membranes.
Electrical properties of membranes
Electrochemical gradients; passive and active ion channels; resting membrane potential; passive electrical properties of the membrane; action potential, genesis and conduction; classification of nerve fibers.
Electrical and chemical synapses; neuromuscular transmission; synapses in the central nervous system, neurotransmitters; receptors.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic nervous system; vegetative reflexes
Muscular tissue; organization of the skeletal muscular tissue, contraction; excitation-contraction coupling; types of contraction; muscle performance: single muscle fiber, motor unit.
HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
Physical principles of hemodynamics; blood physical properties; properties of the heart muscle: autogeneration of action potentials, conduction of action potentials, excitability, contraction; electrophysiology of the heart muscle; mechanical events of the cardiac cycle; cardiac output; regulation of heart functions; circulation system; vasomotor regulation; arterial blood pressure; venous blood pressure and venous blood return
Physical properties of gases; functional anatomy of the lungs; lung volumes and total lung capacity; mechanics of external respiration; lung compliance; respiratory resistances; Inhaled, alveolar and exhaled air; gases exchanges through the alveolo-capillary barrier; gases transport in the blood; blood flow through the lungs; ventilation-perfusion relationships; regulation of respiration.
Functional anatomy; blood flow through the kidney; glomerulus and glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption and secretion; clearance; urinary constituents; regulation of the kidney functions; micturition.
Functional anatomy; hormonal and nervous control of digestive functions; motility of digestive tract: mastication, deglutition, gastric and intestinal motility; defecation; secretive functions: salivary, gastric, intestinal, pancreatic and bile; digestive and absorption processes.
The module of Histology within the Course of Anatomy and Histolog
F.H. Martini, Anatomia Umana EdiSES (http://www.edises.it)
Fisiologia dell’uomo, edited by P.E. Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas, Casa Editrice EDI-ERMES, Milano
Renato Scandroglio: La cellula. Edizioni Santa Croce, Parma.
Renato Scandroglio. I tessuti definitivi. Santa Croce Edizioni, Parma.
Istologia di Monesi. Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padova.