Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student must know the history of doping, the list of prohibited substances, national and international regulations, current legislation, applicable sanctions, control procedures, short- and long-term desirable and undesirable effects of the drugs used, analytical techniques used in anti-doping controls, characteristics of biological sampling and the variables that influence the reliability of results. Must also be able to set the phenomenon of doping and related issues in the current social-cultural context.
Course contents summary
Substances and methods consistently prohibited (during and outside competition)
S1) Anabolic steroids:
1 – Androgenous anabolic steroids (a - Exogenous b - Endogenous)
2 – Other anabolic steroids (clenbuterol, zeranol, zilpaterol)
Anabolism and catabolism
S2) Hormones and correlated substances:
erythropoietin, somatotrope, IGF-1, MGFs, LH, hCG, insulin, ACTH, tetracosactide.
Hematochemical studies: basic and complementary parameters and any supplementary dosages. Endocrine control of energy substrates.
S3) Beta2 agonists (salbutamol, salmeterol, formoterol, terbutaline, clenbuterol, ractopamine, cimaterol.....)
S4) Agents with anti-estrogenic activity:
1 – Aromatase inhibitors
2 – Estrogen receptor selective modulators
3 – Other anti-estrogenic substances.
S5) Diuretics and other masking agents:
epitestosterone, probenecid, plasma expanders.....
M1) Increase in oxygen transport:
a – hematic doping; b – artificial transporters.
Concepts in hemorheology.
M2) Chemical or physical manipulation
masking agents, catheterisation, sample tampering, endovenous infusion.
M3) Genetic doping
II – Substances and methods prohibited in competition
All in section one plus:
mimetic sympathetic amine, amphetamine, cocaine.
Pharmacology of the autonomous nervous system: neurotrasmittiters; neuromodulators; cholinergic system; adrenergic system. Overview of specialised pharmacology on respiratory apparatus drugs.
heroine, morphine, methadone, barbiturates..... .
Overview of specialised pharmacology of the central nervous system and drug abuse.
III – Substances prohibited in certain sports
P2) Beta blockers
Overview of specialised pharmacology in cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory drugs and related alcohol problems.
IV – Specific substances
1) Ephedrine, methylephedrine, methylamphetamine. 2) Cannabinoids. 3) All
beta 2 agonist inhalants, except clenbuterol. 4) Probenecid. 5) All
glucocorticosteroids. 6) All beta-blockers. 7) Alcohol.
D.R. Mottram: Farmaci e Sport. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana