Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the completion of the course the student will be requiered to know the structure of the cells and of the human supracellular units (namely tissues, multi-tissue units and morpho-functional units), of the human organs and of the human aparatuses and systems. He will also be required to know the main morphological and biological aspects of the human development, during the pre-embryonic and embryonic periods.
Course contents summary
1. The cell, structural unit of all living organisms.
Structural aspects on light and electron microscopy of the cells and their organelles.
The human supracellular units, namely tissues, multi-tissue units and morpho-functional units. The most important units of measurement used in histology.
Stem and differentiated cells.
2. Epithelial tissues.
a) Covering epithelia: classification. Form and characteristics of epithelial cells.
b) Glandular epithelia: structure of the glands of the body.
3. Tropho-mechanical tissues.
a) Connective tissues: their three classes of components: cells, fibers and ground substance.
b) Adipose tissues: unilocular adipose tissue and multilocular adipose tissue.
c) Cartilage: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
d) Bone tissues: bone cells, bone matrix, type of bone, bone growth and remodelling.
e) Blood and lymph: serum, plasma and formed elements of blood.
4. Nervous tissue.
a) Nervous tissue of the central nervous system: neurons, cell body, dendrites and axon. Synaptic communication. Membrane potentials. White and grey matter. Glial cells.
b) Nervous tissue of the peripheral nervous system: nerve fibers, nerves and ganglia.
5. Muscle tissues.
a) Striated skeletal muscle tissue: organization of skeletal muscle fibers.
b) Striated cardiac muscle tissue: organization of cardiac muscle fibers.
c) Smooth muscle tissue: organization of smooth muscle fibers.
6. Human Embryology.
Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Fertilization and evolution of the zygote. Morphological aspects of the development: I, II, III and IV week of development.
Embryonic development of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
Structure of placenta.
P. Govoni – Citologia e Istologia – Nuova Edizione 2006 - Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce
P. Govoni – Embriologia – Nuova Edizione 2006 - Ed. Libreria Universitaria Santa Croce