Learning outcomes of the course unit
Provide the mathematical and physical basis to take on arguments of increasing complexity ; introduce the student to the study and application of the scientific method, the basic research tool in any field of science. Acquire the knowledge for understanding a number of major technologies and learn how perform data analysis.
Course contents summary
Physics (Prof. Simonetta Croci)
Physical quantities and their units: Kinematics of a particle. Mean velocity and instantaneous velocity. Acceleration. Acceleration of gravity. Circular motion and harmonic motion. Dynamics of a particle. Newton's laws. Weight force, mass. Friction. Statics of rigid bodies. Basic equations of rigid body statics. Levers. Elastic properties of materials. Elastic deformations and tensile, compression, shearing and torsional stresses. Momentum and principle of conservation. Work, energy and its conservation. Mechanical power.
Heat and its propagation. Temperature scales. Ideal gas laws. Diffusion and Fick's law. Osmotic pressure. Osmosis processes in the biological field. Thermal expansion, thermal capacity and specific heats. Phase changes, latent heat, propagation of heat.
Fluid statics. Density and pressure. Stevino’s law. Pascal’s law. Archimedes’ principle. Torricelli experiment and pressure gauges. Measurement of blood pressure. Sphygmomanometer. Fluid dynamics. Continuity equation. Laminar flow. Bernoulli equation. Torricelli's theorem. Venturi effect. Surface tension. Capillarity. Laplace's law. Electrostatics. Electrical properties of matter. Coulomb’s law. Electric field and electric potential. Electric current and measuring instruments. Electrical resistance. Ohm's law.
Electromagnetism: Magnetic fields produced by electric currents. Electromagnetic radiations. Non-ionising radiations. Radioactivity, ionising radiations and interaction with biological matter. Overview of TAC, TC, NMR, PET Overview of electromedical instruments.
Overview of radiation safety.
Statistics (Prof. Giuseppe Pedrazzi)
Introduction: medical statistics and related disciplines. Logic and statistical planning. Overview of combinatorial analysis: permutations, arrangements, combinations. Applications. Overview of probability calculations: simple and compound probability, Bayes theorem. Odds. Odds ratios. Likelihood ratios. applications. Probability distributions : binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, normal and standard normal distribution. Tables and their use.
Summarising data. Units of measure. Measurements of position, order and variation. Indices of central tendency, mean median, mode. Indices of variability, variance, standard deviation, CV. Percentiles and their use.
General principles of statistical inference. Sampling distribution. Hypothesis and hypothesis testing. Type 1 and type 2 error. Power of a test and operating curve. Parametric test : Student t-test, Variance analysis with 1 and 2 classification criteria. Non-parametric test: Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman test, mean test, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test.
Overview of linear regression and correlation.
Computer science (Prof. Roberto Goldoni)
Overview of historical evolution from the first inventions in the 1600s to the present
Introduction to computer science and use of the computer
General principles of operation
Functional analysis of the structure of a computer
Hardware: CPU, Memory, I/O devices
Binary system and Boolean operators
Information (text, numbers, images, sound) in digital form
Software, basic software and operating systems
Overview of programs and algorithms
Local networks and geographical networks
Internet and its applications
Functional classification of applications programs
Presentation of applications programs for processing texts, presentations, spreadsheets, programs
Use of Internet (navigation, electronic mail)
Basic concepts on the relationship between computer science
1) Lecture notes
2) J. W. Kane, M. M. Sternheim: Fisica Biomedica, ed. E.M.S.I. (Roma)
3) F. Borsa, D. S. Scannicchio: Fisica, ed. UNICOPLI (Milano)
4) Stanton A. Glantz : Statistica per discipline Bio-mediche, ed. McGraw-Hill
5) Sidney Siegel, N. John Castellan Jr. : Statistica non parametrica, ed. McGraw-Hill
6) Internet resources and links