HUMAN ANATOMY AND BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge of the anatomical structures involved in human movent and its control. Knowledge of the main pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory system that have an influence on the physical activity. Anthropometry and body composition.
Course contents summary
Respiratory System: microscopic and macroscopic functional anatomy of airways and lungs. Origin and course of vessels of the pulmonary and bronchial circulations. Microscopic anatomy of the air-blood barrier, respiratory mechanics.
Cardiovascular System: macroscopic and microscopic functional anatomy of the heart. Anatomy of the electrical conduction system of the heart, the mechanics of cardiac contraction. Cardiac specimens. Distribution of the main arterial territories and veins of the portal and caval systems. Microscopic anatomy of capillaries and blood-brain barrier. Outline of embryonic circulation.
Neuroanatomy: neuronal histology. Anatomy of the spinal reflexes. The upper structures that control muscle tone and posture: cerebellum. Structures modulating the motor system: motor cortical areas, the basal ganglia. Anatomy of the visual and vestibular systems.
Anthropometry: Definition of Anthropometry; development of the study of human constitution, the concept of "type" and its applications. Variable anthropometric characters (concept of normality and anatomical and / or functional variation). Basic statistical parameters applicable in anthropometry: frequency distribution, percentiles, two variables populations, lines of tendency. Anatomical and functional characteristics involved in the growth and at the various age: childhood, pre-puberal, post-puberal, adult age. The Anthropometric measures: absolutes and indexes; osteometry, somatometry, stature, weight, body indices, assessment of body composition. Axial and body plans and guidance plans. Definition of the anthropometric points of the body. Choice of the reference points for Anthropometric measurements. Definition of the method to be used for each type of anthropometric absolute measurement. Concept of Body Mass Index (BMI) and its practical applications. Analysis of some methods currently available for the assessment of body composition: two or three compartments systems, as DEXA, hydrodensitometry, plethysmography, bioimpedentiometry. Applicable tools in the assessment of body composition. The main body skinfolds. Design, sampling and organization of a data collection sheet. Anthropometric standards.
Auxology: concept of auxological tables and indexes, and their current applications.
Prevention: assessment of body composition in the prevention of obesity; concept of lifestyle; concept of the rule of maintaining health. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the motor activity in primary prevention.
Anthropometry applied to Sport: understanding and assessment of the constitutional human variability in its main aspects. Basic methodologies for sport counselling. Variability of anthropometric characteristics with respect to age, sex, and sport activities. Body fat, lean mass and hydration status in relation to age, sex and sport activities.
Ergonomics: work spaces and body size; anthropometric applications in ergonomic; postural efforts.
Martini: Human Anatomy (English Version)
Notes from the lectures