# PHYSICS AB

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The minimal competence in basic Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Electrostatics required of an Engineer.

Basic experience in solving very simple problems.

## Prerequisites

Recommended: Analisi AB (Calculus) and Geometria A (Geometry)

Compulsory: none

## Course contents summary

The contents of each lecture is availble as pdf at http://corsi.unipr.it/courses/FIS01/document/Trasparenze-html/Introduzio...

Introduction, physical quantities, their measure and uncertainties.

The case of a point mass. Kinematics: motion in one, two and three dimensions, relative motion. Dynamics: mass, force, Newton laws. Weight, friction. Circular motion. Fictitious forces.

Gravity, point mass and spherical mass, Kepler law of areas.

Work and energy, scalar product, Hooke force, kinetic and potential energy, virtual works, stable and unstable equilibrium, conservation of energy, central forces, gravitational potential energy, binding energy.

Systems of masses. center of mass, center of mass motion, linear momentum, conservation of linear momentum, impulse, elastic collision in one dimension, totally anelastic collision.

Mechanics of the rigid body (introduction): vector product, angular momentum and torque, work under rotations, the theorem of angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum, kinematics of a rigid body, moment of inertia, cardinal equation od dynamics, static equilibrium, kinetic energy, rolling without slip, center of mass reference frame, Atwood machine, precession and the gyroscope.

Introduction to fluids and to thermodynamics: continuity of fluids, Bernoulli's theorem, thermodynamic variables and states, volume, pressure, Archimede's principle, temperature, microscopic vs. macroscopic description, heat, specific heat, laws of gasses, kinetic model of a perfect gas, latent heats of transition, I principle, work, specific heat of gasses, equipartition.

pV diagrams, therodynamic transformations, introduction to pVT diagrams and phase tranformations, cycles, heat engines, the II principle (Kelvin and Clausius), efficiency, Carnot engine, Carnot theorem, refrigerators, coefficient of performance, the III principle and thermodinamic temperature, the II principle and entropy.

Electric field: introduction, Coulomb's law, the field concept, Gauss' law, the field of simple charge distributions.

Electrostaic potential: potential energy and work, potential around simple charge distributions.

Electric fields inside matter: conductors and insulators, dipoles, capacitors.

Electric currents: current density, conservation of charge, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's laws and their physical bases, Joule's effect, discharge of a capacitor.

## Recommended readings

All documentation may be found (in Italian) at http://corsi.unipr.it/courses/FIS01/index.php

## Teaching methods

The students must take three wriitten tests during the course, each consisting of five problems, very similar to those solved during the

practical sessions.

Registration to the first written test must be performed both on my.unipr.it (http://corsi.unipr.it/courses/FIS01/index.php) and by filling the

form therein (Questionario).

Failure in these written tests impies undergoing a full exam (global written test plus oral exam on the whole program).

Passing all three tests may correspond to passing the course, with a grade corresponding to the average of the three tests. The candidate may chose instead to take an oral exam on one or more thirds of the program. The final grade in this case is a weighted average among the grades of the tests and of the oral parts.

Failing one ore two written tests with an overall pass average grade implies compulsory oral tests only on the failed subjects. The final grade once again is a weighted average of the passed written test grades and of the oral grades.