SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The main goal of the course is to introduce the student to the solid state chemistry, to the nature of the crystal state, to the crystal symmetry and to the basic concepts of the diffraction process. The acquirement of the fundamental structure types of simple inorganic structures, the existence of polymorphism and phase transition and the basic concepts governing the solid solutions are considered other fundamental steps. An additional goal is the acquirement of the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the chemical reactivity of solids and the sintering process.
Course contents summary
Crystals and amorphous materials
The crystal state, crystallization process, nucleation and growth, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, amorphous materials, glasses, inorganic and organic glasses
The crystal state, origin of the three-dimensional periodicity, the mathematical concept of lattice, Bravais’s lattice and crystal lattice, Classification of lattices on symmetry basis, point symmetry elements, point groups of Bravais’s lattices: the crystallographic systems, point groups of crystal lattices: the 32 crystallographic classes, symmetry operations involving translation, space groups of Bravais’s and crystal lattices, the international tables of crystallography
X-ray diffraction from a crystal lattice
X-rays and their production, the scattering process, Thomson and Compton scattering, scattering from a point electron, scattering from an atom, the atomic scattering factor, scattering from ordered and disordered systems, diffraction process, Bragg’s law and Laue’s equations, reciprocal lattice, Ewald’s construction, the structure factor, diffraction symmetry, equation of the electron density and the phase problem, practical aspects of X-ray diffraction, single crystal diffraction, powder diffraction, crystallographic data bases and their applications
Classification of crystal structures
Factors influencing the crystal structure, Close packing of spheres as model for inorganic solids, the eutactic model, Principal structure types of binary and ternary compounds
Polymorphism and phase transitions, kinetic classification of phase transitions, thermodynamic classification, continuous and discontinuous transitions, crystallographic trends in phase transitions as function of temperature and pressure.
Definition of a solid solution, interstitial and substitutional solid solutions, etherovalent substitutions and charge compensation mechanisms
Reactivity of solids
Solid state reactions, mechanisms, influence of temperature and pressure, influence of surface area, use of reactive precursors, experimental aspects, sintering process and ceramic materials
A.R. West, Solid state chemistry and its applications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1984