Learning outcomes of the course unit
The main goal of the course is to impart to the student the principles of measurements and machines testing. Starting from a functional description of general measuring systems, the course gives the basics for the analysis of different systems, in both steady and unsteady conditions. Moreover, many instruments widely used for machine testing are presented.
Few lessons are focused on specific examples of machine testing.
Course contents summary
Fundamental standards in measurements system: basic and derived units. International System of Units.
Description of the real phenomena through models as a basic method for measurements.
Fundamentals and definition of accuracy. Repeatability, precision and bias.
Instrument uncertainty and confidence level. Static characteristic and calibration.
Evaluation of repeatability with “a priori” and “ a posteriori” techniques.
Normal distribution, Acceptance criteria and “chi square test”.
Combination of component errors in overall system accuracy calculation; the Kline-McClintock formula. Experimental evaluation of combined error. Total error for a measurement system.
Classification of measurement systems as function of their target. Functional elements of an instruments.
Definition of transducer. Active or passive transducers. Desired and interfering inputs. Loading effects.
Methods of correction of interfering and modifying inputs.
Generalized performance characteristics of instruments
Static and dynamic characteristic of instruments
Static sensivity and linearity.
Generalized mathematical model of measurement system.
Operational transfer function
Sinusoidal transfer function
Zero, first and second order instruments. Dead time elements.
Step, ramp, impulse responses
Generic response of a general form of instruments
Frequency spectra of response.
Bode and Nyquist diagrams
Experimental determination of measurement system parameter.
Manometers. Elastic transducer. Liquid and differential manometers.
High pressure and low pressure measurement.
Pressure Transducers, piezoelectric transducer.
Dynamic effects of volumes and connecting tubing.
Total and static pressure measurement
Standard and calibration.
Thermal expansion methods, bimetallic methods, Liquid in gas thermometers. Pressure thermometers.
Thermocouples: reference junction consideration, considerations and techniques. Electrical-resistance sensors. Thermistors.
Radiation methods. Pyrometers.
Temperature-measuring problems in flowing fluids.
Qualitative methods. Flow visualization.
Local flow velocity measurements. Pitot static tube, yaw tube.
Film anemometers. Brief introduction to LDV techniques.
Gross volume and mass flow rates measurements.
Obstruction meters. Rotameters. Turbine meters. Positive displacement meters.
Density measurement. Direct mass flow-meters
Numerical examples and practical activities
Several experiments are discussed and carried out after the first part of the course.
The students will perform tests on two sample systems (small fan and centrifugal pumps), using the facilities of the laboratories of the Industrial Engineering Department.
The course includes also a visit to an industrial test bench for hydraulic pumps and motors.
1. Angrilli, F., 1996, Appunti di Misure Meccaniche e Termiche Ed. CUSL Nuova Vita, Padova
2. Doebelin, E. O., 2001, Strumenti e Metodi di Misura, McGraw-Hill.
3. Minelli, G. 1974, Misure Meccaniche, Ed. Patron
1. Berta, G.L., Vacca, A., 2001, Appunti di Sperimentazione sui Motori a Combustione Interna, Atti del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale – Serie Didattica
2. Autori Vari, 1994, Measurements Techiques in Fluid Dynamics – An Introduction, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium
3. Taylor, J. R., 1986, Introduzione all’analisi degli errori: lo studio delle incertezze nelle misure fisiche Zanichelli Bologna
4. Capello, A., 1973, Misure Meccaniche e Termiche, Casa Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano
5. Branca, F. P., 1988, Misure Meccaniche, ESA Milano
6. Cavalli, C. A., 1978, Misure e Collaudi sulle Macchine a Fluido, Hoepli
Lessons are focused on topics described in 'Contents'. Practical exercises are performed at the laboratories of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
Oral test and presentation or discussion of results of performed tests.