Learning outcomes of the course unit
to give the foundamental knowledge about the atomic and molecular structure of matter, in order to interpret the chemical-physical properties and the transformations which can be useful in technical areas.
A good knowledge of mathematics is preferable
Course contents summary
The atomic structure of matter
Historical development of atomic theory. Subatomic particles. Principles of stoichiometry
Electronic structure of atoms
Early atomic models: the Bohr atom; wave mechanical models. Multielectronic atoms and the Aufbau principle. Electron configurations of the elements in the periodic table. Periodic properties of the elements.
Ionic bond, covalent bond, electronic delocalization and resonance. Polar covalent bond. Electronegativity. Molecular geometry and polarity. Metal bond (band theory from MO model). Conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond.
Oxidation numbers, classification and nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Types of chemical equations.
Thermochemistry and thermodynamics
The First Law. Enthalpy. Heat of formation, thermochemical equations, Hess's law and enthalpy diagrams.
The gaseous state
Introduction. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Partial pressure and partial volume. Graham’s law. Gas liquefaction, critical temperature.
The liquid state
Introduction. Evaporation. Vapour tension and its dependence from the temperature. Relative humidity. Boiling. Sublimation. Fusion and solidification. H2O and CO2 phase diagrams.
The solid state
Crystalline and amorfous solids. Crystal lattice and lattice planes. Primitive and non-primitive cells. X-ray diffraction. Covalent, ionic, molecular and metallic crystals. Polymorphism. Liquid crystals basics.
Nature of solutions. Concentration of solutions. Raoult's law. Colligative properties of solutions.
The van't Hoff coefficient.
Chemical equilibrium: the law of mass action. The equilibrium constants Kp and Kc. Omogeneous and eterogeneous equilibrium. The Le Chatelier–Braun principle.
Equilibria in solution
Acids and bases: Arrhenius' theory, the Brønsted-Lowry theory. Water autoionization. The ionic product of water. The pH scale
Electrolytic cells. Electrolysis and its applications. Stoichiometry of electrolysis. Galvanic cells. Daniell’s battery. Stoichiometry of galvanic processes. Electrode potentials and electromotive force (emf) in standard conditions. Applications.
Kinetics of reaction
Reaction rates. Rate laws and reaction order. Factors affecting reaction rates: radiations, concentration of reactants, temperature, catalysts. Temperature-dependence of reaction rates, Arrhenius equation, activated complex theory, activation energy. Catalysis. Catalytic converters.
A.M. Manotti Lanfredi, A. Tiripicchio, “Fondamenti di Chimica”, Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano
A.M. Manotti Lanfredi, 'Appilcazioni di fondamenti chimici' Ed. Pitagora, Bologna