INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS A
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To introduce students with the fundamentals of modern metrology, with particular reference to the electronic measurements. Topics include an introduction to metrology (International System of measurement units, electrical standards, and evaluation of measurement uncertainty) and the description of some basic instruments. Techniques, precautions for each measurement type, and required instrumentation configurations are stressed.
Lecture and lab.
It is expected that students will know operational amplifiers (Fondamenti di elettronica BC) and random variables and stochastic processes (Teoria dei segnali A e Teoria dei segnali B)
Course contents summary
Measurements for monitoring physical phenomena. Errors and uncertainty. Physical quantity, measurement units and standards. The International System of measurement units.
Modelling the measurement process: identifying sources of error, understanding and quantifying errors, codifying error effects on a specific reported value in a statement of uncertainty. Uncertainty propagation, type A and type B evaluations, composite and extended uncertainty, degrees of freedom.
Analogue-to-Digital conversion. Sampling and quantisation effects on signals. Non-ideal behaviour of real converters. Dithering. Number of effective bits.
Integrating voltmeter: single slope, dual slope, and multiple slopes, Voltage-to-Frequency, normal mode rejection. Feedback converters: successive approximation, sigma-delta. Parallel converters: flash, pipelined.
Digital multimeter: block diagram. DC and AC measurements of voltage and current. Resistance measurements. Data acquisition systems.
Time-domain signal analysis. The analogue oscilloscope (block diagram, CRT, vertical amplifier, trigger, main and delayed time bases, controls). Real-time digital scope and equivalent-time sampling scopes (block diagrams, aliasing, interpolation, accuracy). Passive and active probes.
Frequency-domain signal analysis: low-frequency (FFT based) spectral analysis.
Time, period, and frequency measurements: conventional and reciprocal electronic counter, frequency and time-interval analyser. Analogue and digital interpolation techniques for measuring time-intervals with picosecond resolution. Measurement uncertainty.
U. Pisani, Misure elettroniche: strumentazione elettronica di misura, Torino, Politeko
Bava E., Ottoboni R., Svelto C., Fondamenti della misurazione, Progetto Leonardo, Esculapio, Bologna, 2005, ISBN: 88-7488-092-8
Norgia Pesatori Svelto - Esercizi di misure, Progetto Leonardo, Esculapio, Bologna 2006, ISBN: 88-7488-150-9
Rubiola E., De Marchi A., Leschiutta S., Esercizi di misure elettriche ed elettroniche, CLUT Editrice, (1996)
Final Exam, 14 hours with approximately 4 laboratory assignments.