# PHYSICS AB

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The aim of the course is to give to the student an organic knowledge of the fundamental laws of the classical mechanics (elementary dynamics and rigid bodies, short account on fluids and solid deformations) and the main principles of thermodynamics and electrostatics; the student should become able to solve in an autonomous way simple problems.

## Prerequisites

The knowledge of the elementary mathematics and of the differential and integral calculation is recommended.

## Course contents summary

Modulus A

Physical quantities. Dimensions and dimensional analysis; units and systems of units; fundamental and derived physical quantities.

Vectors. Scalar quantities and vectorial quantities; vector operations.

Elementary kinematics. Coordinate systems; relative position, velocity and acceleration; mono- and bi-dimensional motions with constant or non constant acceleration; radial and tangential accelerations; motion of projectiles, circular motions, etc.; reference frames.

Elementary dynamics. Newton’s law of motion; contact forces and field forces; the free body diagram; dynamics of the linear and the circular motion; inertial and accelerated reference frames; fictitious forces.

Work and energy. Kinetic energy; work performed by a force; conservative forces and potential energy; conservation of mechanical energy; the mechanical power.

Momentum. Definition of momentum and impulse; conservation of linear momentum.

Discrete and continue mass distribution. The center of mass.

Rigid bodies. Kinematics of rotational motion (angular coordinates, angular velocity and angular acceleration); relations between linear and angular kinematic quantities.

Rigid body dynamics. Torque; center of gravity; angular momentum; moment of inertia; the parallel axix theorem; kinetic energy and work for the rotational motion; equations of motion; Koenig theorems; conservation of the angular momentum; the pure rolling motion.

Gravitational law. Gravitational force and Keplero laws.

Collisions. Impulsive forces and collisions between two bodies (central collisions in mono- and two- dimensional cases, collisions with free or bound rigid bodies).

Statics. Conditions for the static equilibrium of a rigid body.

Harmonic oscillators. Kinematics, dynamics and energetic aspects of the motion about the harmonic oscillator and examples.

Modulus B

Solids and fluids. Deformation of solids: short accounts; fundamental quantities and laws of fluids: Stevino’s, Archimedes’ laws, continuity equation and Bernoulli’s law.

Introduction to thermodynamics. Thermodynamical variables and basic concepts.

Temperature. Zeroth principle of thermodynamics; thermodynamic equilibrium; temperature, thermometers and temperature scales (Kelvin and Celsius); the constant volume gas thermometer; the thermal expansion.

Ideal gases. State equation of ideal gases; kinetic theory of gases; equipartition law; thermodynamic transformations for an ideal gas; reversible and irreversible transformations; p-V diagram; Van der Vaals equation for the real gas.

Heat. Heat exchange: thermal capacity and specific heat; latent heat; heat transfer mechanisms.

Thermodynamical work. Heat and work in the thermodynamical transformations for the ideal gas.

First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy in the thermodynamical transformations; Meyer’s relationship between specific heats.

Second principle of thermodynamics. Heat engines and efficiency; the Carnot’s engine; the absolute scale of temperatures; entropy; short accounts of entropy-disorder-probability.

Introduction to electrostatics. Conductors and insulators; the electrical charge; the Coulomb’s law.

Force and force field. The field of a vectorial physical quantity; the force lines; electric fields due to discrete and continue charge distributions; motion of a charge in an electric field; flux of the electric field across a surface and Gauss’ theorem; electric field of high-symmetry charge distributions; the conductors; the electrical dipole.

The electrostatic potential. Comparison of electrical and gravitational potential differences; equipotential surface; relationship between field and potential; calculation of the electrostatic potential differences for discrete and continuous charge distributions.

Capacitors. Capacitance of an isolated conductor; capac

## Recommended readings

Basical texts

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fisica vol. 1 and 2 - VI edition (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana)

W.E. Gettys, F.J. Keller, M.J. Skove, Fisica classica e moderna vol. 1 and 2 (casa editrice McGraw-Hill)

Advanced texts

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, Fisica Generale, Meccanica e Termodinamica (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana)

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, Fisica vol. 1 and 2 or Elementi di Fisica in several volumes (Casa Editrice ediSES)

R.G.M. Caciuffo, S. Melone, Fisica Generale - Meccanica e termodinamica (Casa Editrice Masson S.p.A.)

## Teaching methods

Theorical lectures are supported by practical lectures, consisting in the solution of simple problems whose text was previously assigned.

The exam consists in a written and an oral test. The written examination can also be taken in form of a few written tests proposed during the course.