# PHYSICS AB

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The objective of the course is the basic knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, and electrostatics. Students will also learn how to solve simple problems.

## Prerequisites

The course is calculus based.

The courses of Mathematical Analysis AB and Geometry should be previously attended.

## Course contents summary

** **

**Physical quantities.** Basic quantities, dimensional analysis, error analysis and significant figures.**Vectors. **Vector and scalar quantities. Vector: products, addition, and derivatives. Superposition principle.**Particle kinematics.** Position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Radial and tangential acceleration. Motion in one dimension (constant velocity, constant acceleration, simple harmonic). Motion in two dimensions (projectile, circular). Reference frames.**Particle dynamics.** Newton’s laws of motion. Forces: gravity, normal, friction, and linear restoring; circular motion and Newton’s laws; inertial and noninertial reference frames. **Work and energy. **Work done by a force, power: constant and varying forces Conservative forces and potential energy. Kinetic energy and work-kinetic energy theorem; principle of conservation of mechanical energy. **Momentum.** Impulse and momentum; system of particles. Conservation of linear momentum; center of mass and its motion; collisions. **Particle rotational dynamics. **Torque, angular momentum, Newton’s second law. Kinetic energy of a particle in rotational motion. Generalization to a many-particle system.**Rigid object dynamics. **Translational and rotational motion, and center of mass. Rotational motion about a fixed axis. Moment of inertia and parallel-axis theorem. Rotational kinetic energy and work; pure rolling. Conservation of angular momentum **Static equilibrium. **The rigid object in equilibrium.**Newton’s law of universal gravitation. **Gravitational force and gravitational field. Gravitational potential energy. Kepler’s laws.**Fluid mechanics.** Pressure and density; variation of pressure with depth, Archimedes’s principle. Bernoulli’s equation.**Thermodynamics. **Fundamental quantities of thermal physics. Temperature and thermometers. Gas laws. Thermodynamical work, heat, specific heat, latent heat. The principles of thermodynamics. Carnot cycle. Thermal engines and efficiency. Entropy.**Electrostatics.** The electrical charge. Coulomb’s law and electric field. Gauss’ theorem and its applications. Electric potential energy and electric potential. Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium, the electrostatic shield.**Capacitors.** Energy stored in a capacitor. Equivalent capacitor of a network of circuit elements: series and parallel combinations. Polarization of matter and dielectrics: the dielectric constant. **Electric stationary currents.** The Ohm’s law. Equivalent resistance of a network of circuit elements: series and parallel combinations. Kirckoff’s laws. RC circuits.

## Recommended readings

Suggested textbooks

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, K.S. Krane, “Fondamenti di fisica” vol 1 e 2 (CEA)

W.E. Gettys, F.J. Keller, M.J. Skove, “Fisica classica e moderna” vol. 1 e 2 (casa editrice McGraw-Hill)

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, “Elementi di Fisica” in più volumi (EdiSES)

For a deeper insight

Serway-Beichner – Fisica per Scienze ed Ingegneria Vol 1-2 – Ed. EdiSES

Halliday-Resnick-Krane – Fisica 1 e 2 – Ed. CEA

P.Mazzoldi, M.Nigro, C.Voci – Fisica vol. I e II . Ed. EdiSES

## Teaching methods

Exercise sessions will be held during the course.

It is required to pass both a written and an oral examination.