CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Acquisition of knowledge on principles and practice of the main methods for the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses of medical interest.
Course contents summary
Teachers: Professor Adriana Calderaro and Professor Stefania Conti
Methods for microscopic examination, cultural examination, identification, antibacterial susceptibility testing, antigen detection (agglutination test, immunochromatographic assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence test), nucleic acid detection (in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, nested-PCR, real-time PCR, RFLP-PCR), antibody detection (immunoenzymatic assay - EIA; ELFA, western blotting, flocculation and agglutination tests, immunofluorescence test, immunodiffusion assay) applied to the diagnosis of infections due to:
• Anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium, Bacteroides)
• Spirochetes (Borrelia, Brachyspira, Leptospira, Treponema)
• Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Haemophilus, Bordetella, Legionella, Pseudomonas)
• Gram-negative cocci (Brucella, Neisseria)
• Gram-positive rods
• Gram-positive cocci
• Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae, Mycoplasma
Teacher: Professor Stefania Conti
Laboratory diagnosis of mycoses
- Microscopic examination
- Cultural examination
Procedures for identification of yeasts
Procedures for identification of moulds
- Serological procedures
- Methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of fungi
- Molecular biology approaches in medical mycology
Teacher: Professor Adriana Calderaro
Methods for specimens preparation for parasitological diagnosis.
- Methods for microscopic examination by direct wet mount, after concentration and for trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen stain;
- Cultural methods for intestinal protozoa;
- Culture-concentration methods for intestinal nematodes;
- Methods for intestinal protozoa antigen detection;
- Methods for intestinal protozoa nucleic acid detection;
- Methods for microscopic examination by direct wet mount and for Giemsa stain;
- Cultural methods for protozoa parasitizing blood and tissues;
- Methods for antigen detection of protozoa and helminths (microfilariae) parasitizing blood and tissues;
- Methods for nucleic acid detection of protozoa parasitizing blood and tissues;
- Methods for microscopic examination by direct wet mount and after concentration
- Cultural methods for urogenital protozoa parasites;
- Methods for specific anti-parasites antibody detection: enzyme immunoassay, indirect hemoagglutination, and western blotting.
Teacher: Professor Maria Cristina Medici
Methods for electron microscopy, cultural examination (rapid and conventional), identification of cytopathogenic agents, antigen detection (agglutination test, immunochromatographic assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence test), nucleic acid detection (in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, nested-PCR, real-time PCR), antibody detection (immunoenzymatic assay - EIA; ELFA, emoagglutination test, immunofluorescence test, complement fixation, western blotting, immunoblot) applied to the laboratory diagnosis of:
• viral enteric tract infections (due to rotavirus, adenovirus, calicivirus, enterovirus)
• viral respiratory tract infections (due to influenza virus, parainfluenza, respiratory syncitial virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus)
• viral central nervous system infections (due to herpes viruses, enterovirus)
• viral genitourinary tract infections (due to adenovirus, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus)
• viral skin infections (due to herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus)
• viral systemic infections (due to cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human immunideficiency virus)
• viral infections of the eye (due to adenovirus, herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus)
• viral hepatitis (due to hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus)
• congenital and perinatal viral infections (due to rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunideficiency virus)
Murray P.R., Rosenthal K.S., Kobayashi G.S., Pfaller M.A.
Edizione italiana a cura di G. Palù, L. Conventi, A. Grossato, C. Parolin
Società Editrice EdiSES
Bendinelli M., Chezzi C., Dettori G., Manca N., Morace G., Polonelli L., Tufano L.A. "Microbiologia Medica" Monduzzi Editore
“Parassitologia generale ed umana”
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Balows A., Hausler W.J. Jr., Lennette E.H..
"Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases - Principles and Practice"
Casa Editrice Springer-Verlag
Murray P.R., Baron E.J. Jorgensen J.H., Pfaller M.A., Yolken R.H.
"Manual of Clinical Microbiology"
Casa Editrice ASM Press