# NUCLEI AND PARTICLES

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The main objective of the course is to give an introduction to the basic aspects of the physics of the nuclei and of elementary particles.

The basic framework is constituted by the principles of Quantum Mechanics and of Relativity.

Fundamental interactions responsible of the dynamics of the nuclear reactions and of elementary particle physics are introduced.

Aim of the course is also to give the basic concepts and to present the main facts and issues involved in the description of the evolution of the universe and their relation to the physics of the fundamental interactions.

Phenomenological aspects related to the physics of the accelerators and of detectors within the elementary particle experiments are also introduced.

## Prerequisites

An elementary knowledge of the quantum mechanics an of the relativistic kinematics is recommended

## Course contents summary

Introduction to the nuclear physics. The Rutherford model. Binding energy. Relativistic kinematics and nuclear reactions. The Weitzsaecher formula of the nuclear masses. The isotopic spin. Nuclear stability. The alpha decay.The Fermi Golden Rule. Lifetime. The Rutherford cross-section. Nuclear form factors. Nuclear radius.The Mott cross-section. Deep-inelastic scattering. Structure functions and Bjorken scaling. The parton model. The quark model. The electron-positron annihilation cross-section. Mesons and barions. Resonances. Weak interactions and beta decay. The standar model of the electroweak interactions. Strong interactions. The Fermi gas model of the nuclei. The nuclear force. The Yukawa hypotesis.

Particle physics and the early universe termodynamics. The Big-Bang hypotesis.

The first three minutes. Cosmic microwave background radiation. Primordial nucleosythesis of the elements. Stellar evolution and Nuclear fusion. The synthesis of the heavier elements.

Particle accelerators and detectors.

## Recommended readings

B. Povh , K. Rith , C. Scholz , F. Zetsche, "Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts" Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. p.389.

B. Povh , K. Rith , C. Scholz , F. Zetsche. "Particelle e Nuclei: un'Introduzione ai Concetti Fisici", Anno 2002. Bollati Boringhieri 401 pp.

## Teaching methods

Lessons and exercises.

The final exam comprises also solution of exercises.