Learning outcomes of the course unit
Consolidate the base chemistry knowledge, give to the student the competence for the description of the natural systems by the quantitative analysis of the natural geochemical processes and of anthropic meaning.
Course contents summary
Definition of isotope. Stable isotopes. Isotope fractionation. Isotope ratio and the definition of (delta). The expression of fractionation (the fractionation factor, the enrichment factor, the separation value, their relationships and some exemples). Condensation of the gas. The Rayleigh equation for condensation. Evaporation. Relative humidity. Evaporation and Rayleigh fractionation. Stable isotopes of the waters. Stable isotopes of oxigen and hydrogen. Oceans. Meteoric waters (equation of Craig of meteoric waters, temperature.isotopic ratio relationships, main isotopic variations). Surface waters and groundwaters (isotopes as tracer of the nutrients in the surface and ground waters, water-rock interaction). Other stable isotopes of environmental importance. Carbon, sulphur, nitrogen and strontium isotopes.
Venturelli G (2003) Acque, minerali e ambiente. Pitagora editrice, Bologna
Fornaseri M (1984) Lezioni di Geochimica, Libreria eredi V. Veschi, Roma
Clark I e Fritz P (1997) Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology. CRC Press LLC
Fergusson JE (1990) The heavy elements: chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Pergamon press
Stumm W e Morgan JJ (1996) Acquatic chemistry. Wiley & Sons