DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSPORT TECHNIQUES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
to provide the tools and the information necessary for a correct design of the packaging
Course contents summary
DISTRIBUTION CYCLE DEFINITION: INTRODUCTION. Packaging history. Glossary and relevant examples. Definitions after EU Directive. Repeatability and reproducibility. European and National Standardization Bodies. Law – standard – rule. Statistical Data. Modern packaging. Packaging sectors. Packaging situation in Italy. The five steps for the packaging development. DISTRIBUTION CYCLE. Logistics. Analysis of a typical distribution cycle. Mechanical and environmental loads during the different cycle phases. Environmental information collection. Analysis of the ISO 4178 standard. Correlation between parameters variation and risks and analysis of costs/benefit. Mechanical loads: compression, vertical and horizontal shocks, vibrations. Simplified environment definition. STANDARD DEFINITION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. Analysis of the IEC Standards 60721. IEC 60721-1: classification of the environmental conditions. Environmental parameters. IEC 60721-3-0: severity of the environmental parameters. IEC 60721-3-1: storage. IEC 60721-3-2: transportation.
FRAGILITY: SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM OSCILLATING SYSTEM. Equilibrium equation with excitation of the mass and through the base. Laplace and Fourier transformation of the equilibrium equations. Analysis of the main transfer functions. Transmissibility function. Natural frequency and amplification. SHOCK AND VIBRATIONS. Vibrations: sources and types. Sinusoidal, stationary random vibrations, transient random vibration and transient impulsive vibration. Statistical distribution of the instantaneous values. Power Spectral Density and Shock Response Spectrum. Resonance. Response to stationary and transient vibrations. SHOCK AND VIBRATIONS STRENGTH. Fragility of a product. Damage definition. Fragility to the shocks. Determination of the fragility curve: peak acceleration/velocity change. Analysis of the ASTM D 3332 standard. Fragility to the vibrations.
MATERIALS SELECTION: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF PACKAGING WASTES. European Directives. Environmental Analysis of the six sectors: alluminium, glass, paper, plastic, steel, wood. Environmental impacts evaluation. Example of the polyethylene environmental balance. Waste environmental management in Italy. CONAI toll. Waste environmental management in the European Community. CEN standards. PAPER. Raw materials and paper and paperboard types. Production process of paper and paperboard packaging. Environmental impact. Input/output balance. STEEL. Raw materials and plated steel types. Environmental impact. ALLUMINIUM. Main applications. Flexible packaging production, cans. Input/output balance. GLASS. Raw materials and main glass types. Production cycle. Environmental impact. PLASTIC. Main polymers for packaging applications. Films, trays, foils, bottles, coatings. Environmental impact. WOOD. Raw materials and main packaging types. UNI Italian Standards. Construction types and components of the packaging. PACKAGING MACHINERY. Types. Design criteria of a packaging production line. Actual productive running time. Actual efficiency variation. Accumulators. Run speed. Development phases of a machine.
DESIGN OF A PACKAGING PROTOTYPE: PACKAGING FUNCTIONS. Contain function. Protect/Preserve function, Food preservation. Refrigeration system. Trasportation. Inform/sell function. APPLIED PACKAGING. Carded display packaging. Chub packs. Fiber cans. Collapsible tube types. Bottles. Bar code. Security labeling. Durable goods packaging. Pharmaceutical packaging. Good design rules. Europallet. Performance balance of Packaging/Product. TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR TESTS OF PAPER AND PAPERBOARD. ASTM and TAPPI standards for paper and paperboard characterization. DANGEROUS GOODS TRASPORTATION. International standards for the transportation of dangerous goods. Italian Situation: DM 14.05.90 – DM 23.05.85 – DM 10.06.2004. ADR – ADN – ONU Recommendations – Civil liability Convention. Classification systems. GHS. PACKAGING DEVELOPMENT. The five steps for t
Libro bianco sull’imballaggio, Istituto Italiano Imballaggio, Milano, 1995.
Richard K.Brandenburg, Julian June-Ling Lee, Fundamentals of packaging dynamics, MTS System Corporation, Minneapolis, 1985.
Walter Soroka, Fundamentals of packaging technology, Institute of Packaging Professionals, Illinois, 1999.
Maurizio Boccacci Mariani, Massimo Medugno, Daniele Trombetta, La gestione degli imballaggi, Casa Editrice La Tribuna, Piacenza, 2002.
Gianfranco Vignati, Manuale di logistica, Hoepli, Milano, 2002.
C. M. Harris, C. E. Crede, "Shock and Vibration Handbook", Mc Graw Hill, 1988.
Gianfranco Mainardi “L’imballaggio industriale Italiano del legno”, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano, 2001.
frontal lectures and exercises / oral examination