INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY I
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is intended to provide the students with the basic principles of industrial chemistry and the tools for attaining the greatest efficiency in the industrial processes with the lowest possible production costs. In this connection helpful information are given about the relationship between the basic chemistry, physical chemistry and thermodynamics principles, for the most part theoretically developed in previous courses, and the applications of these principles in the chemical industry to forecast and obtain the maximum yields according to the different constraints which can affect the chemical equilibrium. The basic chemical kinetics concepts are considered with special regard to the catalytic reactions. Then a more detailed examination of some significant inorganic industrial processes is accomplished involving the previously established concepts and the reasons why a procedure is industrially preferred rather than another one as well chemically realizable are emphasized.
Basic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry and thermodynamics principles
Course contents summary
Material Balances, Energy Balances, and both simultaneously.
Introduction to industrial chemical calculations. The chemical equation and stoichiometry. Extent of reaction: a state variable for chemical systems, limiting reactant. The material balance, analysis of material balance problems. Stationary state processes. Problem with direct solution, material balances using algebraic techniques. Problems involving tie components, recycle, bypass and purge calculations. Problems.
Energy Balances. First thermodynamics principle. The general energy balance. Reversible processes. Energy balance in an open system, enthalpy balance. Energy balance with chemical reaction.
Application of simultaneous Material and Energy Balances.
The central problems of thermodynamics. The equilibrium state. Conservation of mass and energy.
Entropy: an additional balance equation. The entropy balance and reversibility. Application of the entropy balance. Entropy in the realm of chemical reactions. Chemical potential and Affinity: the driving force of chemical reactions. General property of affinity.
The thermodynamics properties of real substances: real gas, pure liquids and solids.
Stability of thermodynamics systems, general thermodynamics relations. Gibbs free energy of formation and chemical potential.
The thermodynamics of multicomponent mixtures. Ideal and nonideal mixtures. The estimation of the Gibbs free energy and fugacity of a component in a mixture.
Chemical transformation: transformation of matter. Chemical reaction rates. Chemical equilibrium and the law of mass action. The principle of detailed balance. Entropy production due to the chemical reactions.
Chemical equilibrium and the balance equations for chemical reaction systems. Complex chemical equilibrium. The phase rule for reacting systems. Liquid-solid equilibrium involving ions. Equilibrium diagrams for saline mixtures, Janeck’s diagrams.
Analyzing complex chemical equilibrium, problems. Formulating complex chemical equilibrium, problems. The CHO system and carbon deposition boundaries.
Thermodynamics analysis of processes. Work and free energy functions. The availability. Systems involving chemical transformations.
Physicomechanical processes. Compression and expansion of gases. The Joule-Thomson expansion, liquefaction of gases.
Industrial inorganic chemicals: Production and uses. Economic importance of the inorganic chemical sector. Mention of patent significance. Environmental aspects of inorganic chemical productions.
Industrial gases. Liquefaction of air. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, synthesis gas. Steam methane reforming (SMR).
Nitrogen products: Ammonia, Nitric Acid, Ammonium Nitrate, Urea.
Sulphur products: Sulphuric Acid. Claus process.
Chlorine-alkali production: Chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, hydrogen chloride, phosgene.
Hydrogen peroxide and inorganic peroxy compounds.
Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering
D. M. Himmelblau
Prentice-Hall International Editions
Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics
S. L. Sandler
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Industrial Inorganic Chemistry: Production and Uses
Edited by R. Thompson
The Royal Society of Chemistry
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
John Wiley & Sons Inc.