MACHINE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The scope of the course is to supply the engineer student a completion of the base preparation whit regard to fluid machines. That completion is to intend as a set of useful knowledge to a correct understanding about interaction between the machines and the all other components in the regulation and control system.
Course contents summary
Problematic of the regulation.
Generality on the regulation and control systems. On-off regulators, linear regulators. Methods in order to correct the error. Fundamental elements of the regulation systems. Transducers, amplifiers and actuators in pneumatic version and electrical version. Electric and pneumatic signals. Analogical and digital signals treatment. Converters A/D and D/A.
Call-backs of thermodynamics and fluid-machines.
Problematic about the availability and production of energy. Thermodynamic diagrams: p-v, T-s, h-s. Saturated vapour cycles and overheated vapour cycles. Work and efficiency. Methods in order to improve the efficiency. Gas cycle (Brayton). Gas turbines. Calculation of cycle work and efficiency. Call-backs of heat transmission: conduction, convection, radiation. Heat exchangers. Architecture and evolution of steam generators. Most common types of nuclear reactor: architecture and running. Isentropic flow in a duct. Force intensity of a fluid on a wall. Differential ad integral forms of energy equation. Action and reaction turbines. Architecture of hydraulic machines. Frigorific cycles: C.O.P. definition and improvement. Frigorific machines operating by single and multiple compression; single ad multiple lamination. Alternative internal combustion engines. Air intake systems; importance of the turbulence. Types of fuel; ignition and irregular combustion problems. Air fuel mixture in spark plug ignition and compression ignition internal combustion engines. Carburettor. Direct and indirect injection Diesel engines, injection pump. Injection for gasoline engines and ECU. Common rail. Exhaust gas analysis.
Study of systems in the frequency domain. Fourier transform, Laplace transform unilatera and bilatera, Reimann integral. Bode diagrams, Nyquist diagram. Stability of systems: frequency analysis, Nyquist criterion, root locus.
Example of a regulation system.
Level reservoir regulation adopting a positioner or a electric motor. Oleo-dynamic slide valve-cylinder system, open and closed ring. Watt tachymeter and tachymeter-accelerometer.
Industrial plant regulation.
Steam turbine regulation; shuttering; isodromic and non isodromic regulaition; security systems. Problems in linking more alternators to the same line. Steam generator regulation: air, fuel, level, stem condition. Gas turbine regulation, one shaft and twin shaft.
Implementation and study of thermo-fluid-dynamics phenomena in Matlab-Simulink and Amesim.
Dinamica e controllo delle macchine a fluido (Appunti dalle lezioni all’università di Bologna) Pitagora
Morandi, Macchine termiche e frigorifere, Pitagora
Caputo, Gli impianti motori termici, E.S.A.
Caputo, Motori alternativi a combustione interna, E.S.A.