HYDRAULIC MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROLS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To become confident with the instruments and the techniques of hyadraulic measurements. To plan and develop the physical and numerical models of hydraulic structures. To plan the sytems of control and management of civil hydraulic plants.
Course contents summary
The SI system. Uncertainties and errors. Dimensional analysis. Characteristics of measurements systems. Transducers. Digital and analogic data. Instruments with balancing effects. Instruments with deflession. Generalized configuration of instruments. Filters and signal conditioning. Static and dynamics characteristics of the instruments. Static calibration: regression models. Static sensitivity, linearity, threshold, resolution, dead band. Generalized impedance and stiffness, admittance and compliance. Dynamics characteristics of linear stationary systems. Transfer functions. Instruments of zero, first and second order. Output of the systems with a step, ramp, Dirac signal in input. Frequency response. Tranducers of position: potentiometric, induttance, capacitance, contactless. Strain gages. Piezoelectric tranducers. Optic and optoelectronics system. Laser interferometry. Position transducer photodiod. Pressure-displacement transducers. Digital displacement transducers. Tranducer of position using UltraSounds. Digitizer 2-D and Ultrasounds 3-D. Accelerometers. Stroboscopic methods to measure the rotation rate. Watt controller. Gyroscopes. Force transducers. Force transducers using vibrating strings. Torque transducers. Pressure transducers. Dead weight manometers, Bourdon manometers. Vacuometers, Knudsen vacuometers. Fluid velocity measurements instruments: hot-wire and hot-film anemometers, laser doppler, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Pitot tube. Ultrasound Doppler Velocimeters. Flow rate measurements: Venturi, nozzles and orifices. Propeller, vortex, Coanda effects measurements. Rotameters. Volumetric flow meters. Electromagnetic flow meters. Mass rate measurements. Coriolis meters. Mass density measurements. Fluid level measurements: floats, bubble rise, induttance. Flow rate measurements in open channels: weirs, critical sections, flumes. Ott and Price propellers. Flow measurements in natural flows. Viscosimeters, coaxial cylinders. Measurements of sediments volume concentrations, optical methods. Measurements of soil permeability, in the lab and in the field. Thermometers.
Theory of similarity. Direct analysis. Geometric, cinematic and dynamic similarity. Euler , Reynolds, Froude, Mach similarities. Similarity in cavitation. Similarity in piezometric well. Idroelastic models. Distorced models. Similarity in sediment transport. Similarity in water hammers. Similarity in water waves. Applications of physical models: shaft spillway, the effluent. The tunnel and the bypass channel, the flip bucket. The chambers. Local scouring. Fluvial, lagoons and estuarines control works. Water waves propagation models. Coastal problems. Analogic models. Aerodynamics models. Mixed models.
Misure e Controlli Idraulici (2006) S. Longo & M. Petti,McGraw-Hill Italia, Collana di Istruzione Scientifica, serie di Ambiente e Territorio, ISBN 88-386-6137-5, XI+415 pp. (in italian)
Measurement systems, (1990) E.O.Doebelin, Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100697-4, pp 960+XXII (in english)
Metodologie moderne di misure idrauliche e idrodinamiche, (1992), G.Pulci Doria, CUEN, Napoli, ISBN 887146 183-5, pp 407 (in italian)
Introduzione all'analisi degli errori (2000) J.R.Taylor, Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-17656-8, pp331+XII (also available in english)