Learning outcomes of the course unit
To give to the students knowledge about chemical structures and properties of food components.
To show chemical composition of main foods and the modification occurring during processes.
Course contents summary
Inorganic components of foods – Water: structure and properties, water in foods, water activity, mineral waters. Mineral elements: macroelements and microelements.
Carbohydrates: structure and reactivity of monosaccharide; disaccharides, oligosaccharides, poliols, polysaccharides, starch; dietary fiber, cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, gums; nutritional aspects of carbohydrates; reactions of carbohydrates in acidic/basic environment and during heat treatments; formation of hydroxymethylfurfural, lactulose, caramelization.
Proteins: amino acids, peptides, protein structure and classification; essential amino acids and nutritional quality of proteins; foods rich in protein; protein modification during food processing, formation of isopeptides, lysinoalanine, furosine, Maillard reactions.
Lipids: classification and properties; fatty acids, essential fatty acids, trans-fatty acids; triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, waxes, sterols; nutritional properties of lipids; chemical reactions of lipids in foods, isomerisation, hydrolysis, oxidation; antioxidants.
Vitamins: classification, biological functions and presence in foods.
Food colour: natural and artificial colorants.
Physical and chemical methods for food preservation, food additives.
Xenobiotics and natural toxicants in foods.
Principal foods: fats and oils (olive oil, seed oils); milk and dairy products (butter, cheese, yogurt); meat, fish, egg; cereals and derived products; legumes, fruit and vegetables; alcoholic beverages and vinegar.
P. Cappelli, V. Vannucchi. "Chimica degli alimenti - Conservazione e trasformazioni“. Ed. Zanichelli (Bologna, 2000)
P. Cabras, A. Martelli. "Chimica degli alimenti“. Ed. Piccin (Padova, 2004)
T. P. Coultate, “La Chimica degli Alimenti”, Ed. Zanichelli (Bologna, 2004).
H.D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle. “Food Chemistry, 3° revised edition”. Springer-Verlag Ed. (Berlin, Germany, 2004)
O. R. Fennema, Food Chemistry, Marcel Dekker Ed. (New York, USA)