Learning outcomes of the course unit
The Animal Biology course has been designed to provide students with the most up-to-date scientific information in the fields of evolutionary biology, molecular biology and cellular biology, as well as provide the biological foundation required to understand reproductive processes and embryogenesis in major animal groups.
Fundamentals in the field of general biology and zoology.
Course contents summary
ORGANISATION OF LIVING SYSTEMS
Atoms, molecules and bonds that form the basis of the chemistry of life. Structure and function of organic macromolecules
Cellular basis of life
Kingdoms of the living world
EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
Origin of life
Prokaryotes and the start of metabolic diversity
Origin of eukaryotes
Invertebrates and the origins of animal diversity
Origin and evolution of vertebrates. Evolution of Primates
Mechanisms of evolution
THE ANIMAL CELL
Morpho-structural differences between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell and viruses
Membrane structure and function. Membrane structural models
Nucleus, cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic organelles
Cell transport. Transport of small molecules: simple and facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, cotransport Transport of large molecules: exocytosis and endocytosis modes
Cellular metabolism and energy production: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Cell cycle. Apoptosis
Methods of cell study. Optical and electronic microscope. Cell cultures
Nucleic acids. DNA duplication. Genetic code and protein synthesis
Genome organisation. Chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis
Basic principles of heredity. Mendelian heredity. Dominant and recessive characters
Genotype and phenotype. Genetic variability: random mating, mutation, back mutation and genic recombination. Crossbreeding, inbreeding and natural selection
Overview of recombinant DNA technologies and their applications
Reproductive modes in the animal kingdom. Asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction: gametogenesis, fecundation and embryo development. Bacterial conjugation
Chemical messengers: cytokines, growth factors, hormones and pheromones
Relationship between organisms and the environment. Symbiotic relationships between organisms. Parasitism
N.A. CAMPBELL, B. REECE "Biologia", Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.
E.P. SOLOMON, L.R. BERG, D.W. MARTIN "Fondamenti di Biologia", EdiSES, Napoli.
W.K. PURVES "Biologia", Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna.