Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objective of this course is to provide students, through theoretical lectures and exercises in the classroom, knowledge relating to principles of chemical equilibrium, calculation of pH of acid, base and saline solutions and principles and applications of the main techniques of volumetric analysis.
To sit the Analytical Chemistry exam the candidate must have taken the General Chemistry exam.
Course contents summary
Course Description. Introduction to analytical chemistry: qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Traditional methods and instrumental methods of analysis. Units of measure.
Ways of expressing the concentration of solutions: molarity, percentage by weight and by volume, parts per million and related. Preparation of standard solutions by weight and by dilution. Conversion between the various methods of expressing concentration levels. Exercises.
Principle of chemical equilibrium. Various types of equilibrium:
auto-ionisation of water, solubility product, dissociation of acids and bases, compound equilibrium formation, oxidation-reduction equilibriums.
Definition of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums.
Equilibrium constant. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature.
Principle of mobile equilibrium (Le Chatelier-Braun).Exercises.
Definition of acids and bases. Auto-ionisation and ionic product of water. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of strong bases and acids. Exercises.
Definition of weak bases and acids. Dissociation constant. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of weak bases and acids. Exercises.
Polyprotic acids. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of polybasic acids. Distribution curve of equilibrium species on the basis of pH. Exercises.
Salt hydrolysis equilibriums formed by weak acid and strong base, strong acid and weak base, weak acid and base. Acid salt hydrolysis equilibriums. Calculation of pH of saline solutions. Exercises
Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH of buffer solutions. Buffering
Principles of volumetric analysis. Definition of primary standard.
Direct and return titration. Final point and point of equivalence.
Methods for determining point of equivalence.
Titration of strong acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Titration of weak acids with strong bases and vice versa. Titration curve. Acid-base titration indicators. Exercises.
Oxidation-reduction titrations. Oxidation-reduction indicators.
Titration curve. Exercises.
Complexometric titrations. Titrations with EDTA. Conditional formation constant. Metallochromic indicators. Titration curve. Exercises.
Precipitation titrations. Argentometric titrations: Mohr method, Volhard method, Fajans method. Titration curve. Exercises.
P. Michelin-Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio Fondamenti di Stechiometria
-D.C. Harris Chimica Analitica Quant itativa Zanichelli.
- D.G. Watson Analisi Farmaceutica Edises
-D. Cairns Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Pharmaceutical Press
- Skoog, West, Holler, Crouch Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica
Second edition, Edises
The final written exam focuses on all of the topics included in the course syllabus. The student must demonstrate that he/she has understood the fundamental concepts of each topic and that he/she is able to apply them.