SMALL AND LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to provide students with the basic knowledge required to carry out an accurate assessment of the patient with a view to applying specific clinical surgery procedures to different animal species.
Presentation and discussion of clinical cases, in small and large animals of surgical interest: diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical treatment of each case. Imaging is particularly focused. Analysis of the surgical results and of the follow up controls are discussed with students
Course contents summary
Diseases of the common tegument:
Lipomas. Mastocytomas. Melanomas. Squamous-cell carcinomas. Cutaneous habronemiasis. Phycomycosis. Sarcoids. Nodular necrobacillosis. Tumoral calcinosis. Cicatricial keloid.
Papillomatosis. Breast neoplasms.
Principles of intestinal surgery:
Pre- and peri-operative treatments. Determination of intestinal viability. Reperfusion injuries. Approaches to abdominal surgery.
Enterotomy. Enterectomy and enteroenterostomy. Manipulations of the intestine. Abdominal washout. Laparotomy closure. Post-operative treatments. Post-operative abdominal complications.
Diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal pain for diseases of the large and small intestines:
Obstructions. Torsion. Simple and complex invaginations. Prolapses.
Hernias, complex and otherwise:
Umbilical hernias. Ventral or incisional hernias. Inguinal hernias. Internal hernias.
Diseases in newborns:
Anal and ano-rectal atresias. Meconium retention and constipation caused by meconium. Recto-vaginal, recto-urethral and recto-bladder fistulas. Omphalitis. Omphalovasculitis. Urachitis. Patent urachus.
Male genital system:
Cryptorchidism. Testicular ectopia. Testicular torsion. Testicular tumours. Inguinal-scrotal hernias. Orchiectomy. Preputial phimosis and paraphimosis. Indications for amputation of the penis and surgical technique.
Instability of cervical vertebrae. Spinal locomotor ataxia.
Australian arpeggio (horse). Vertebral malformations. Paralysis of the trigeminal nerve. Paralysis of the facial nerve. Paralysis of the brachial plexus. Paralysis of the suprascapular nerve. Paralysis of the subscapular nerve. Paralysis of the radial nerve. Paralysis of the femoral nerve. Paralysis of the obturator nerve. Paralysis of the ischiatic nerve. Paralysis of the common peroneal nerve. Paralysis of the tibial nerve. Neurectomy: various techniques and possible complications (horses).
Eyes and ocular adnexa:
Proptosis of the eyeball. Endophthalmitis. Neoplasms of the eyeball and socket. Eyeball surgery: enucleation, evisceration with intrascleral prosthesis, exenteration, intravitreal injection of Gentamicin. Entropion and ectropion. Trichiasis, distichiasis, ectopic cilia. Palprebral neoplasms. Ageneses of the eyelid. Corneal, conjunctival and eyelid dermoids. Eyelid surgery: tarsorrhaphy, Hotz-Celsus technique, Stades technique, cryoepilation, medial and lateral canthoplasty, tucking, reconstructive blepharoplasties. Prolapse of the third eyelid gland. Dacryops or lacrimal cysts. Neoplasms of the conjunctiva and third eyelid. Conjunctiva and third eyelid surgery: repositioning of the third eyelid gland and thrd eyelid flap. Recurrent corneal erosion.
Descemetoceles. Perforation of the cornea. Corneal abscesses. Isis prolapse. Nigrum. Epithelial inclusion cysts.
Corneal surgery: grid and punctuate keratotomy, superficial keratectomy, pedunculate and other conjunctival grafts, corneo-scleral transplants, corneal sutures, iridectomy. Anterior and posterior dislocation of the crystalline lens. Cataracts. Lens surgery: removal of the crystalline lens, phacoemulsification.
Endotoxicosis in horses.
Diseases of frequent surgical interest affecting the horse’s airways:
Akinesis or so-called paralysis of the false nostril. Haematoma of the ethmoid. Displaced soft palate. Palatoschisis. Subepiglottic cysts. Incarceration of the epiglottis. Laryngeal hemiplegy. Guttural pouch tympanitis. Guttural pouch empyema. Guttural pouch mycosis. Emergency tracheotomy. Permanent tracheostomy. Tracheal collapse.
Diseases of the skeletal system and their treatment in horses:
Periostitis. Osteitis. Osteomielitis. Osteochondritis. Bone fractures in general. First aid and transport for horses with bone fractures. Long-bone fractures. Fractures
AUER J.: Chirurgia del cavallo, Essegivi-Edagricole, 1995.
BOJRAB M.J.: Le basi patogenetiche delle malattie chirurgiche nei piccoli animali, Giraldi editore, 2001.
BRAUND K.G.: Manuale di neurologia dei piccoli animali, Giraldi editore, 2002.
CHELI R.: Clinica Chirurgica Veterinaria, UTET, 1988.
DENNY H.R.: Compendio di chirurgia ortopedica del cane e del gatto, Giraldi editore, 1998.
FACKELMAN G.E., NUNAMAKER D.M.: Manual of Internal Fixation in the Horse, Springer-Verlag, 1982.
FOSSUM T.W.: Chirurgia dei piccoli animali, Masson editrice, 2004.
GELATT N.: Small Animal Ophthalmic Surgery, Butterworth- Heinemann, 2001.
Lectures and practical exercises in groups.
Assessment will be based on a written and an oral exam.
The course will be taught in Italian.