VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student is expected to acquire basic knowledge of bacterial cells, viruses and immune phenomena.
The student will be expected to: develop the capacities to resolve the most common veterinary problems using epidemiological methods; acquire the basic principles and the most commonly applied epidemiological techniques of veterinary medicine; apply a quantitative reasoning method, focusing particularly on disease frequency estimates, test assessments and risk factor assessments.
Course contents summary
MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
- Shape, size, spatial arrangement.
- Structure of the prokaryotic cell: nucleus, cytoplasm, cytoplasmatic inclusions, ribosomes, plasmids, cytoplasmatic membrane, mesosomes, gram-positive and gram-negative walls, flagellum, adhesion organs, capsules, antigens.
- Wall-defective bacteria: protoplasts, spheroplasts, L-forms.
Nutrition and metabolism: energy production, aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, respiration and fermentation, biosynthesis of the main cell elements.
- Culture: chemical-physical factors affecting bacterial replication, simple and complex, liquid and solid, enriching and selective isolating culture media.
- Reproduction: splitting, growth curve and chemical-physical factors affecting it.
- Bacterial identification.
- General taxonomic characteristics: staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacteria, bacilli, clostridia, listeriae, actinomycetes, campylobacters, enterobacteria, moraxellae, bordetellae, neisseriae, pseudomonas, alcaligenes, aeromonas, vibrios, yersiniae, pasteurellae, brucellae, hemophyli, spirochete, mycobacteria, rickettsias, chlamydias, mycoplasmas.
- Genetics: mutations, recombinations, (transformation, conjugation, transduction), phagic conversion, R plasmids and pathogenicity plasmids (pilus-like structures, Col, Ent, Hly).
- Biotechnology: basic concepts and techniques.
- Pathogenic action: pathogenicity, virulence, infectivity, receptivity, infection, disease, healthy carrier; pathogenicity factors (adhesion structures, invasive factors, anti-phagocytic defence, endo- and exotoxin elaboration).
- Molecular techniques applied to diagnosis of infectious diseases: basic concepts.
Genesis and evolution of an infectious disease: primary lesion, dissemination, tropisms.
Basic knowledge of disinfection: aims, limits, main classes of disinfectants.
Antibiotics: classes and mechanisms of action.
Chemical composition, size and structure of complex, cubic-helical symmetry viruses, capsid, capsomers, peplos, peplomers
Bacteriophages: morphology and structure, lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle.
Interaction between viruses and eukaryotic cells attachment, penetration, replication, maturation, release
Culture: tissue cultures, cell cultures, animals, embryonated eggs. Viral replication culture and detection methods.
Virus titration: physical, biological, hemagglutination methods.
General taxonomic characteristics of DNA and RNA viruses .
Non-conventional infectious diseases
- Non-specific protection mechanisms of the skin and mucosa: structure, integrity, dynamic phenomena, normal bacterial flora.
Phagocytosis: professional and occasional phagocytes, opsonins, phagocytosis mechanisms, fate of phagocyted microorganisms, survival consequences.
Antigens: chemical-physical characters, determinants or epitopes, haptenes and carriers, immunogenicity, thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens.
Humoral immunity: primary and secondary lymphoid organs, lymphocyte classes, antibody production, structure and classes of immunoglobulins, distribution.
Local and cell-mediated immunity.
Primary and secondary response, memory, lymphocyte recirculation.
Active immunity: infection, vaccination, type
POLI G., COCILOVO A.: Microbiologia e Immunologia Veterinaria, Utet, Torino, 2005.
BENDINELLI M., CHEZZI C., DETTORI G: Microbiologia medica. (Batteriologia). Monduzzi Editore, 2006.
ABBAS A., LICHTMAN A: Fondamenti di immunologia. (Funzioni ed alterazioni del sistema immunitario). Piccin, 2003.
BROCK: Biologia dei microrganismi. Volume I. Casa Editrrice Ambrosiana, 2003.
BOTTARELLI E.: VetEpi * Quaderno di Epidemiologia Veterinaria. http://www.unipr.it/~bottarel/epi/.
AHLBOM A., NORELL S.: Epidemiologia moderna. Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma, 1993
BEAGLEHOLE R., BONITA R., KJELLSTROM: Epidemiologia di base. Edizione italiana a cura di G. Agazzotti, Editoriale Fernando Folini, Casalnoceto, 1997.
PFEIFFER D.U., Veterinary Epidemiology - An Introduction. Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand. Disponibile online all'indirizzo: http://epiweb.massey.ac.nz/ epinotes.pdf