Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students the main contents of architectural drawing and architectural survey, in order to make them able to translate the three-dimension geometrical models typical of built and projected architecture into normatively correct representations.
At the end of the course the student will be able to carry out a two-way connection between the reality and its graphical measurable model. This knowledge is essential for the understanding of space and its representation on two-dimensional support. The student will also possess the basic knowledge necessary to use the main tools of survey and advanced drawing.
At the end of the course the application of the different methods of survey, made possible by the study and the practice in the field, will permit the student to develop their own graphic language and its expressiveness in the specific field of building drawing and built architecture.
Independence of judgment
Due to the development of the skills of observation, visualization and expression of spatial forms through the mastery of drawing as a tool for reasoning and representation, at the end of the course the students will be able to identify for themselves the methods and the techniques of survey and representation most appropriate for the communication of their work.
Since the representation is one of the leading forms of language for the communication of architecture, passing the exam, the students must necessarily have acquired the ability to communicate their ideas and surveys through the drawing.
Course contents summary
As a discipline of architecture and, more generally, of the world of construction, representation uses Drawing as a privileged tools for the description of spatial forms through graphic images.
In this sense, the contents of the course are essentially aimed at consolidating the fundamental notions that students must possess for the correct and complete description of an architectural artefact and its components, in order to provide an exhaustive and articulated representation at different scales. This objective is pursued through the provision of theoretical and practical lessons aimed at providing students with the indispensable tools for a correct interpretation of the architectural and urban space (both existing and project), through the development of knowledge of the most innovative techniques of survey and representation in the digital environment.
The course is divided into two modules that will take place in parallel.
The first module, corresponding to 4 CFU, will be borrowed from the Digital Modeling of Architecture course held by Prof. Chiara Vernizzi in the Master's Degree in Architecture and Sustainable Cities. The lessons will take place through the analysis of the instrumentation and procedures of the project design: from the sketch to the digital model, addressing the various phases of the construction project (conception, design, definition and construction of the architectural object) and the related techniques of representation and graphic and modeling syntheses, retracing the entire process through the application of the main concepts on an agreed building. Through the presentation of the most widespread parametric computerized design and three-dimensional modeling programs, the digital technologies for the processing of information with the purpose of representative integrations will be illustrated, exploring the potential of some parametric graphic software dedicated to architecture (BIM) , and analyzing the codes and graphic conventions to be used with these tools in the representation of the executive project.
In detail, the lessons will focus on the following topics:
- The project design: the types of documents: the design of the project; the description of the project; multimedia communication of the project; the presentation of the project
- the design phases: preliminary, final, executive
- The digital representation of the project: overview of the most popular parametric software: Allplan; Archicad; Revit.
In particular, the second module of the course in Construction Design focuses on existing architecture with particular attention to the survey, intended as the most appropriate scientific tool for the knowledge and understanding of built architecture in its ideative, formal and technological-constructive components.
The course is conducted through theoretical and practical lessons so that the student has the opportunity to check operationally the concepts learned during ex-catedra lessons.
In particular, the lessons will insist on the following topics:
- Introduction to Drawing and Survey of architecture: the survey as a tool of knowledge open in time;
- Illustration of the main methods of survey and the main instruments for its graphical restitution;
- The direct survey;
- The instrumental survey: topographic survey and laser-scanner survey;
- The instrumental survey: photogrammetric survey.
- The direct survey: exercises;
- The laser-scanner survey: exercises;
- The photogrammetric survey: exercises;
- The restitution of measures collected during the campaign phase: traditional methods and 3D software.
The practical exercises will have as their subject a building agreed with the teacher of the course, of which the students will carry out the survey and the subsequent representation through the use of the most widespread techniques of digital representation.
S. Bertocci, M. Bini, Manuale di rilievo architettonico e urbano, CittàStudi Edizioni, Novara, 2012.
Cundari C., Il rilievo architettonico. Ragioni, fondamenti, applicazioni, Ermes, Milano, 2015.
M. Docci, M. Gaiani, D. Maestri, Scienza del disegno, CittàStudi Edizioni, Novara, 2017.
M. Docci, G. Maestri, Manuale di rilevamento architettonico e urbano, Laterza & Figli, Bari 2009.
About design drawing:
L. Quaroni, Progettare un edificio. Otto lezioni di architettura, Edizioni Kappa, Roma, 2001
M. Canciani, I disegni di progetto. Costruzioni, tipi e analisi, CittàStudi Edizioni, Novara, 2009
C. Vernizzi: Il Disegno in Pier Luigi Nervi. Dal dettaglio della materia alla percezione dello spazio, Mattioli 1885, Fidenza, 2011.
The course will be organized in a series of lectures held both through the realization of drawings at the blackboard, both through the projection of presentations previously arranged. In the lessons will be analyzed the role of representation for the management of the survey and the project, from the phase of ideation to that of realization, operated on some architectural applications agreed with the teachers. In order to allow a continuous and progressive learning of the systems of survey and representation, in parallel with the theoretical lessons, a practical exercise will be assigned. The exercise, to be carried out in groups, will have as its object the survey (and the consequent graphic restitution) of a small building.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of learning will be carried out continuously during the course, through the evaluation and control of all the material produced by the student.
The verification will be so modulated:
Application of the methods of representation in drawings (knowledge): 50%;
Application of the techniques of representation in drawings (skills): 40%;
Autonomous choice of the modes of survey and representation (independence of judgment): 10%.