RURAL ECONOMY, AGRONOMY - BOTANY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to allow the student to know and understand the essential elements of the economy and the market of zootechnical productions, agro-food economy and agronomy also in order to allow the student ability to use the knowledge and understanding acquired in identifying and solve the problems of business management in relation to EU policies and food security. The student will be able, with the acquired knowledge, to analyze and express opinions on the problems of the agricultural sector (Autonomy of judgment). The student will be able to analyze situations and alternative scenarios of agricultural policy (communication skills). The student will have the critical knowledge to compare and compare the nature of the problems of the agricultural sector in the medium and long term (Learning skills)
1- Knowledge and understanding:
- To know the anatomy of the plant cell and of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know the classification criteria of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know and understand the main biochemical processes that characterize and take place in the plant cell;
- To know and understand the main functions of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know and understand the main natural and artificial classification techniques of plants;
- To know the characteristics and understand the use of the main herbaceous crops typical of the italian territory.
2- Applying knowledge and understanding:
- Be able to recognize and classify properly the different plant organs and tissues;
- Be able to recognize and classify the main herbaceous crops typical of the italian territory.
3- Communication skills:
- Be able to explain the characteristics and ways of recognizing herbaceous crops even to an inexperienced audience.
4- Making judgements:
- Know how to evaluate the morphological characteristics of a plant according to its intended use.
5- Learning skills:
- Link the different topics dealt with each other and with basic and related disciplines. Update and understand the scientific publications on plant biology.
Course contents summary
The livestock under the national and European level. Fundamentals of economic theory. Market for agricultural products. The company and the company. The economic balance of the farm. Economics of production. Beef cattle breeding. Pig sector. Poultry sector. Dairy sector. PDO/PGI/TSG. Tomato industry sector. The organization of producers. Tax reform in agriculture. The sources of statistical information in agriculture. Consumer, business and market. Components of the food system. Public intervention. EU policies for agriculture, rural development, food security and the environment.
The agricultural soil: physical, chemical and biological.
The agricultural techniques: tillage, fertilization, fertilization laws.
INTRODUCTION The concept of plant organism. Binomial nomenclature. Origin, diversity and classification of plants. Outlines of major biological molecules: lipids, sugars, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids. Organic acids. ATP and NAD(P). THE PLANT CELL The main features of the plant cell. The nucleus and the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane. The endomembrane systems. Tonoplast and vacuole. The osmotic phenomena and the turgor. Plastids. Outlines of mitochondria, peroxisomes and other organelles. The cytoskeleton. Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. The cell wall and plasmodesmata. WATER BALANCE IN PLANTS The water in the soil. Water absorption by the roots. Water transport through the xylem. Movement of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. MINERAL NUTRITION AND TRANSPORT Essential nutrients for plants. Absorption of mineral elements of the soil. Membrane transport processes and translocation of mineral elements in the plant. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Reactions in light and dark. Photosynthetic electron transport, proton and synthesis of ATP. Primary and secondary starch. C3, C4 and CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Distribution of photosynthesis products: allocation and partition. Ecology of photosynthesis. HISTOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF HIGHER PLANTS Meristematic tissues and adult tissues. Anatomy of root and stem in Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. The dorsal-ventral leaf, isolateral and needle-like. Stomata and stomatal movements. ONTOGENETIC PLANT CYCLE Overview on reproduction of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Angiosperms: the flower and the sexual reproduction. Microsporogenesis, macrosporogenesis, gametogenesis, fertilization. Embryogenesis. The seed: structure and chemical composition. Germination and seedling formation. The fruit. OUTLINES ON SECONDARY METABOLISM AND PROTECTION OF PLANTS TOWARDS BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS Terpenes, phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds. Defence against herbivore insects and pathogens. water, heat, salt, oxidative stresses and major environmental pollutants. MAIN CROPS ADDRESSED TO AGRO-ZOOTECHNICAL USES Graminaceae, Fabaceae, industrial crops; outlines on meadows, pastures and mountain crop
DE CASTRO P. - Verso una nuova agricoltura europea. Agra, Roma,2002.
FABBRI A. - Produzioni vegetali. Edagricole, Bologna, 2001.
HOFFMANN A. - La nuova politica di sviluppo rurale. Franco Angeli, Milano, 2006.
MARIANI F., VIGANO' E. - Il sistema agroalimentare dell'Unione Europea. Carrocci Editore, Roma, 2002.
ZUCCHI G. - Zooeconomia. Economia del sistema delle produzioni animali.
Edizioni Avenue media, Bologna, 2006.
Physiology and Behaviour of Plants
Lectures with Power Point Support.
Practical activity on vegetal samples.
Assessment methods and criteria
The student will have to perform a final oral exam with verification questions that must demonstrate knowledge and ability to understand the topics covered, autonomy of judgment and ability to express opinions on the problems of the sector, to have acquired critical knowledge to compare and compare the nature of the underlying problems. This will be verified with a plurality of questions.