Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course the students are supposed to have acquired knowledge and competence on the basic aspects, both theoretical and experimental, of general and inorganic chemistry. In particular, the student should:
1- - know the specific language of the chemistry, the symbols of the elements, the nomenclature rules, the different reaction types and the formulas of the most common compounds.
- understand the nature of the atoms, their placement in the periodic table and the related properties, the nature of the chemical bond and of the molecules.
- know the aggregation states of the matter and their fundamental properties.
- understand and know the thermodynamic of the chemical processes, the conditions determining spontaneous reactions and the rules driving the chemical equilibrium, the acid/basic behavior and the hydrolysis.
- understand the basic principles of the redox reactions and of the electrochemistry and know the functioning of galvanic and electrolytic cells. (Knowledge and understanding).
2- - apply the knowledge of the basic chemistry to explain the chemical behavior of the matter and to describe in a more complete way the physical systems and their interactions.
- put into practice the theoretical knowledge in the chemical lab by learning and applying the fundamental safety rules. (Applying knowledge and understanding).
3- - connect different aspects of the course, when examining a chemical problem, to develop an independent judgment based on an enlarged view of the problem. (Making judgments).
4- - deal with scientific and professional themes, retrieving the necessary information on different sources.
- discuss chemical issues in written and oral form using the correct language. (Learning and communication skills)
Course contents summary
The course aims to introduce the physics student to the basic aspect of the Chemistry, which are necessary for a better description and understanding of the physical systems and of their interactions. The contents of the lectures range from the structure of the atom to the periodic properties of the elements, from the chemical reactivity to the nature of the chemical bond leading to the formation of molecules and compounds, from the properties of the aggregation states to the energetic end kinetic aspects of interactions and reactions defining the chemical equilibrium and the spontaneity of the processes, from the behavior of the chemical species in solution to their acid/basic properties, from the red-ox reactions to the conversion of chemical an electric energy. The course introduces the student to basic language of the Chemistry that is necessary in developing the technical-specialized language of the scientist. Moreover, thanks to a specific laboratory activity, the course allows to the student to acquire the necessary dexterity to perform experiments within the safety rules of the chemical lab. The laboratories activity will be realised only if the safety issues related to the pandemic spread will allow them.
Fundamentals of atomic and molecular theory. Name and symbols of the elements. Atomic mass, molecular mass and isotopic mass. Mole and Avogadro's number. Structure of the atom (historical-epistemological approach). Hydrogen atom. Polyelectronic atoms. Electronic configuration, periodic table and periodic properties of the elements.
Chemical bond. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Lewis structural formulas. VSEPR theory. Molecular orbitals (MO) and valence bond (VB) theory. Hybrid orbitals. Resonance. Metallic bond. Interactions of Van der Waals and hydrogen lagam.
Gaseous state: ideal gases and real gases; liquefaction of a gas.
Liquid state: general properties. Surface tension. Vapor pressure. Evaporation and boiling.
Solid state. Amorphous solids and crystalline solids. Symmetry of crystals and crystal lattices. Polymorphism and allotropy. Classification of crystalline solids. The case of graphite.
General properties of solutions. Ways of expressing concentrations. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Osmotic pressure.
Chemical thermodynamics. State of equilibrium of a system. State functions and variables. Principles of thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Entropy. Free energy and spontaneity of a process. Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous equilibria. Phase rule. State diagram. Solubility equilibria. Solubility product.
Acids and bases. The nature of acids and bases. Strength of an acid / base. Ionization of the water. pH and its determination. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations.
Electrochemistry. Electrolytic and galvanic cells. Normal reduction potentials. Reference electrodes.
Chemical kinetics. Speed of reaction. Order of reaction. Reaction mechanisms. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
STECHIOMETRY. Chemical nomenclature. Salification reactions. Redox reactions in molecular and ionic form. Mole and stoichiometric calculations. Yield, limiting reagent. Molarity and Normality of solutions: exercises and examples.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. General properties of groups. Properties of the elements of blocks s and p and their most important compounds. General properties of block elements d.
Practical exercises in the laboratory on topics of general chemistry.
The notes of the lectures and exercises, and all the supporting material are available to students and shared on Elly platform. For each laboratory experiment, specific notes and indications for the preparation of the report are directly supplied to the students. In addition to the shared material, the student can personally go further on some of the topics discussed during the course in the following books:
"Chimica Generale", Zanichelli
The course counts 9 CFUs (one CFU, University Credits equals one ECTS credit and represents the workload of a student during educational activities aimed at passing the exams), which corresponds to 78 hours of lectures and laboratories. The didactic activities alternate frontal lessons and laboratories, the latter carried out in the final part of the course. If necessary, according to SARS-CoV2 pandemic situation, lessons will be carried out in eleraning by Teams and laboratory substituted by excercises. During the lessons, the course topics are proposed from the theoretical point of view and illustrated with examples and exercises. During the training in the lab, which is aimed to put into practice the acquired theoretical knowledge, the students conduct personally the experiments, in order to acquire the necessary dexterity within the safety rules of the chemical lab. The attendance to at least 80% of the scheduled laboratories, is a necessary condition to take the final exam. The slides and notes used to support the lessons will be uploaded to the Elly Platform in agreement with the sequence of the arguments of the scheduled lectures. The download of this material is possible only for on-line registered students.
Assessment methods and criteria
Verification of the knowledge takes place through an oral exam on the themes of lectures and laboratory activities. If necessary, according to the pandemic situation, the exam will be oral and will be carried out online by Teams.