APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The study of the transport phenomena, and in particular of their role in catalysis, will provide to the student useful tools for the development and the control of the industrial chemical processes, whereas the principles of the dimensional analysis will provide some basic criteria for the scale-up of a chemical process from the laboratory to the pilot and industrial level. These abilities, integrated with those concerning the phase diagrams, will be of help in understanding the issues specific of the industrial chemist, in performing critical evaluations and in proposing suitable solutions.
The physic-chemical approach to the different topics will serve to widen the cultural baggage of the student, enabling him in future to work both independently, both in interaction with other people and in group even on multidisciplinary projects. Moreover, it will be of help in the circumstances in which he will be faced to new scientific or professional challenges and in case elaborate and propose solutions to complex problems, and in addition it will improve the evaluation and communication skills.
Course contents summary
The first part of the course will be devoted to the study of the two- and three-components phase diagrams, taking as the starting point the thermodynamics elements dealt with in the ambit of the Physical Chemistry I course of the first cycle degree.
The second part will be focused on the fundamental elements of energy, matter and motion transfer. The subject will be dealt with after an appropriate preparatory stage mainly devoted to the Kinetic Theory of Gases. The rheological properties of liquid and solutions, the dimensional analysis and the applications of the mass transport in heterogeneous catalysis will also be introduced.
The surface tension, the adsorption phenomena (with reference to the heterogeneous catalysis mechanisms) and the colloidal state will be the subjects of the third part of the course.
The phase diagrams. Generalities.
Two components phase diagrams.
The construction of the phase diagrams: theory and experiments. Liquid-liquid diagrams: miscibility gap. Solid-liquid diagrams: eutectic and peritectic transitions, formations of compounds.
Three components phase diagrams. The model. Liquid-liquid diagrams: miscibility gap. Solid-liquid diagrams: eutectic and peritectic transitions, formations of compounds.
Kinetic Theory of gases.
Unified transport theory. Unified model for gases. Transport phenomena in liquids.
Viscosity and measurements of viscosity (elements of rheology). Pure liquids, mixtures and solutions of polymers.
Equations for fluid motion. Motion regimes. Dimensional analysis. Motion of fluids in pipes. Motion of fluids through porous masses. Filtration. Fluidization.
Heat transfer: conduction, convection, irradiation.
Diffusion. First and second Fick’s law. Applications. Heterogeneous catalysis. External diffusion. Internal diffusion. Catalyst effectiveness.
Surface tension, capillarity, contact angle.
Physical and chemical adsorption. The adsorption isotherms. The adsorption models: Langmuir, Freundlich, BET. The mechanisms of the heterogeneous catalysis.
The colloidal state. Types of colloids. Synthesis methods of colloids. Properties of colloids. Stability of the colloids.
L. Forni, I. Rossetti, Fenomeni di trasporto, Ed. Cortina MI, 2009.
P. Atkins, J. de Paula, Chimica Fisica, Zanichelli
Frontal lessons. Slides will be shown as traces of the lessons, integrated with explanations and demonstration at the dashboard. Copies of the slides will be available on the Elly platform: they however have not to be considered texts sufficient for the preparation of the exam. The sources of the subjects dealt with will be indicated time by time. The attendance of the lessons is in any case strongly recommended.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination. Duration: about 35-40 min. Three questions will be posed, each of them concerning one of the issues indicated in the extended program. The student will have to answer to at least two question to get a sufficient evaluation. A fourth question will be sometimes of help for deepening purposes, in order to verify the possibility to increment the vote, in case up to the honors.