Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims providing knowledge and skills in the field of geomatics. To this end, the attending students will apply the acquired knowledge, individually and in groups, both through numerical exercises and by carrying out an integrated survey activity throughout the course of the laboratory.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the lab, the student will have integrated his knowledge of instrumental survey methodologies and will have a basic knowledge of measurement errors. He will have a complete overview of the application areas, the technologies used / usable in geomatics and the main approaches in the field of topographic survey for cartographic purposes, control and testing. He will have a basic understanding of photogrammetry and the operations and applications of laser scanner technologies;
Applying knowledge and understanding:
Upon completion of the lab, it is expected that the student will know how to evaluate the order of magnitude of the results of a surveying calculation; know the fundamentals of designing a measurement or control network and the selection of required instrumentation; know and be able to apply methods for verifying the tolerances of a survey; knows how to carry out instrumental in situ survey activities with calculation of coordinates, compensation of observations, graphical presentation and reporting of the results; has developed the ability to deal with a simple photogrammetric survey, orienting the image block and be able to produce common photogrammetric products.
Upon passing the exam, the student should have developed the ability to critically evaluate the application of different (possibly integrated) surveying techniques to a generic engineering problem (land surveying, architectural surveying, monitoring, etc.) as well as the ability to interpret and evaluate the quality of a survey.
The laboratory and group activities are intended to allow the student to develop a good capacity for interaction and dialogue within the work team and towards the different components involved in a survey job. The student must also demonstrate the ability to illustrate rationally and critically the different surveying design solutions and must have developed sufficient language skills, at least with regard to the specific technical terminology of the course.
The student, at the end of the laboratory, should have acquired the basic knowledge and skills to face, in the future, an autonomous in-depth study of the different aspects related to geomatics and their harmonious application in civil construction workflows.
Calculus and geometry: derivatives, integrals, linearization of functions, solution of non linear equations systems, matrix algebra.
Course contents summary
Geomatics deals with the acquisition, modeling, processing, and analysis of spatial data. In other words, it deals with the determination of points (of the topographic surface, of a building, etc.) in a reference system, carried out with assigned and controlled precision. Among other things, from geomatics procedures, derives the technical cartography necessary for the design of infrastructure and land planning and management; with geomatic tools and methods are tested and controlled large structures and ground movements, and so on.
The course aims introducing the students to the use of geomatic techniques. In particular, the following aspects will be studied in depth, in an eminently practical laboratory setting: references to geodesy and reference systems; elements of topography and observations treatment; GPS positioning; elements photogrammetry and laser scanning.
Lecture module 1: Elements of geodesy and reference systems
Geodesy and reference systems. The surveying of points on the earth's surface. Coordinate systems and coordinate transformations. Geodetic reference systems. Transformations between geodetic reference systems.
Lecture Module 2: Elements of Topography
Surveying instruments and methods: for measuring azimuthal and zenithal angles, distances and height differences. Accuracy and application fields of different methods. Error theory. Variability of measurement results. Probability and random variables. Covariance propagation law. Error ellipse. Least squares observations compensation. Networks. Correction of observations for compensation on the Gauss plane.
Lecture Module 3: GPS Positioning. Description of the measurement system. Pseudo range and phase observations. Modeling of systematic errors. Accuracy of absolute, relative and differential positioning in static and kinematic modes. Plano-altimetric positioning of GPS networks with VERTO. Networks of permanent stations.
Lecture Module 4: Photogrammetry and Laser Scanner
Collinearity equations; Stereo restitution in the normal case; External orientation with bundle block adjustment; Direct orientation; Products of photogrammetry; Principles of operation of a laser scanner and its operating characteristics; Registration of point clouds
Lecture module 5: Geomatic operations for civil engineering works. Cartography as an aid to design. Operations of tracking, testing and monitoring of structures. Monitoring of movements and deformations.
R. Barzaghi, L. Pinto, D. Pagliari. Elementi di topografia e trattamento delle osservazioni. CittàStudi, Milano, 2018. - Disponibile in Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura.
C. Monti, L. Pinto - Trattamento dei dati topografici e cartografici, 2008. – Disponibile in Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura. –
A. M. Manzino: Quaderni di Topografia, vol.1 e vol. 2, Levrotto e Bella, Torino, 2017. – Disponibili in Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura
A. Selvini, Elementi di fotogrammetria
Other sources (advanced):
Alberto Cina, GPS: princìpi, modalità e tecniche di posizionamento, CELID, 2000 – Disponibile in Biblioteca politecnica di Ingegneria e Architettura. Utile per approfondimenti sul GPS e il trattamento statistico dei dati.
K. Kraus, Fotogrammetria Vol. 1,
Levrotto e Bella,
Lectures Slides (Available on the Elly web portal)
Lectures, numerical exercises, field surveys, execution of a practical surveying project
Assessment methods and criteria
The course is graded based on Oral exam and Project development and discussion, in which the student is expected to survey through geomatic techniques one or more built elements.
Grades will be determined using the following grades and based on the following aspects:
Project development and discussion (70%):
Illustration of theoretical topics (knowledge)
Application of knowledge to a real surveying case (applying knowledge)
Capability of autonomously choose the proper surveying techniques and restitution methods (making judgments)
Oral Examination (30%):
Illustration of theoretical topics (knowledge)
Application of knowledge through exercises (applying knowledge)
Proper use of technical terminology (Comunication skill)